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Assessment standards for physical condition of children swimmers in Ecuador

Normas de evaluación de la condición física en niños nadadores ecuatorianos

 

Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE

(Ecuador)

Alexis Fernando Suntaxi Suntaxi

afsuntaxi@espe.edu.ec

Fernando Esteban Quilumba Diaz

dredgardo@hotmail.com

PhD. Edgardo Romero Frómeta

eeromero4@espe.edu.ec

 

 

 

 

Abstract

          This paper aims to establish standards for the selection of possible swimming talents, specifying the sport initiation age (7-10 years old). The study includes various anthropometrical and fitness values such as height, cormic index: 100 (seated height / standing height in percentage, both measured in centimetres), arm’s length (cm), 30 m fly test with 10 m impulse (measured in seconds), long jump without impulse run (measured in centimetres), Abs in 30 seconds (measured in repetitions), elbow flexions in face down position (measured in repetitions), and 600 m run (measured in minutes, seconds and milliseconds, respectively).The abovementioned indicators are applied on a sample of 79 female swimmers and 72 male swimmers from 19 provinces of the Republic of Ecuador, evaluated through a four item scale previously set (Excellent, Very Good, Good and Pass). The research study allowed using a methodological assessment tool indispensable for the coaches, which shows for the first time the specific characteristics of the Ecuadorian population able to practice high performance swimming.

          Keywords: Swimming. Standards. Fitness. Sport initiation.

 

Resumen

          La investigación tiene por objetivo la elaboración de normas de selección de posibles talentos para la natación, especificando la etapa de iniciación deportiva (7- 10 años de edad). Se estudia varios indicadores antropométricos y de condición física de relevancia, tales como la Talla, Índice Córmico: 100 (Talla sentado/Talla de pie en por cientos, donde ambas tallas se miden en centímetros), la Braza o envergadura (cm), 30 m lanzados con 10 m de impulso (medidos en segundos), Salto de longitud sin carrera de impulso (medido en centímetros), Abdominales en 30 segundos (medidos en repeticiones), Flexiones de codo bocabajo en 30 segundos (medido en repeticiones), y Carrera (600 m), medido en minutos, segundos y centésimas respectivamente. Los indicadores enunciados se aplican a una muestra de 79 nadadores del sexo femenino y a 72 del sexo masculino, pertenecientes a 19 provincias de la República del Ecuador, evaluados mediante un baremo establecido previamente con cuatro escalas (Excelente, Muy Bueno, Bueno y Aprobado). La investigación permitió contar con una herramienta de evaluación metodológica indispensable para los entrenadores, la cual evidencia por vez primera las características específicas de la población ecuatoriana disponible para la práctica de la natación en el alto rendimiento.

          Palabras clave: Natación. Normas. Condición física. Iniciación deportiva.

 

Reception: 05/29/2016 - Acceptance: 10/28/2016

 

1st Review: 10/02/2016 - 2nd Review: 10/22/2016

 

 
Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, Revista Digital. Buenos Aires, Año 21, Nº 222, Noviembre de 2016. http://www.efdeportes.com/

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Introduction

    The Ecuador Swimming Federation affirms that swimming is a sport practiced in the country by two age groups very well defined: 7-8 and 9-10 years old and is considered an early specialization sport (Jayanthi, Pinkham, Dugas, Patrick & LaBella, 2012; Feeley, Agel & LaPrade, 2015), as in other sports. However, it is possible to see children under 6 practicing this sport, as it is affirmed by Moreno, Abellán & López (2003), although age groups are conceived as it was mentioned above.

    To Riaño Ramírez (2008) the effective selection in child and junior sport not only implies knowing the sport ideal, but also the average models that typify an athlete in different stages of their training. It is up to the sport orientation to choose a specialty for each youth (Myer, Jayanthi, Difiori, Faigenbaum, Kiefer, Logerstedt & Micheli, 2015), while the main task of the sport selection is to find the most promising talents based on the specific demands of each sport, considering strategic actions with significant influence in the sport initiation programs (Calero & Suárez, 2011; Calero, 2012).

    The training of a swimmer requires years of dedication. The process should begin at the age of seven and end in the 20s, when the athlete should acquire and improve his technique, develop physical qualities and the necessary skills to face the demands of the training (Reboredo, 2010).

    The detection of talents leads children and youths to those sports in which they can develop their potential and disregard those with apparent limitations. “Almost everyone has features that might make them have success in some kind of sport; the important thing is to identify them”. (Alexander, 2004).

    Hebbelinck (1990) states that sport talents “are those children who once identified by qualified specialits are able to show a high performance of exceptional skills, children and youths aged 8-18 years detected in schools as high bearers of intellect and stability in different levels of performance”.

    On the other hand Pila (1996) affirm that “it refers to every outstanding action of the human being which is potentially translated into high level of motor and morphofunctional performance that favour a proper initiation and development in the complex pedagogical process, called sport training”.

    It is important to take into account that the methodology for sport talent scouting is not general to all sports; each discipline has its own methodology and standards to identify the possible talent with aptitude to practice a sport. It must be known the exact age and gender for the selection, as well as aspects and characteristics such as genetics or social, cultural and economic factors (Calero, 2012; Ford, Hodges, Williams, Kaufmann & Simonton, 2013; Rees, Hardy, Güllich, Abernethy, Côté, Woodman & Warr, 2016).

    For the selection, promotion and ratification of talents, it is indispensable to have a methodology with parameters set for different stages, effective for the coaches and serving as orientation to make a fair selection in order to reduce making mistakes such as including athletes without the conditions or excluding talents (Renovales Borrego, 2009).

    The conception of many Ecuadorian swimming coaches about sport scouting as a process is based on the possibility to find, or in some cases, to receive talented youths able to develop a long-term training, but with lack of a follow-up and a scientific control of the sport advances, as well as a poor evolution of their psychological, morphological and functional characteristics. Therefore, it is necessary that this long-term planning includes selection moments based on scientifically valid and appropriate criteria and methods to carry out this constant feedback and enhancement of the training process.

    There are different tests to assess the component of the sport training: biological, physical, psychological, technical, tactical and theoretical; aimed at evaluating variables before and after starting a process (Barroso, Calero & Sánchez, 2015) establishing the evaluation of child categories, according to the necessities of a country or an intitution, as it is stated by Calero & Suárez (2011) and Calero (2013).

    Some authors state the importance of anthropometric variables in sport selection and health (Morals, Jesus, Lopes, Garrido, Silva & Marinho, 2012; Barbosa, Morais, Costa, Goncalves, Marinho & Silva, 2014) as well as the indicators or variables of physical conditions (Flores, Calero, Arancibia, y García, 2014a,b; Calero & González, 2015), thanks to its relative evolution stability, elements particularly adapted to elaborate previsions on the talent behaviour, but it involves necessary but not enough assumptions to obtain the best results, because only with a combination of the anthropometric and the personal characteristics (motor, psychological, cognitive) will have the effect wanted (Baur, 1993; Lorenzo, 2004).

    The tests selected for the standards of the proposal are indicators referred to the characteristics of the somatotype and the physical evaluation of the children, this type of test is used by different authors such as Colado (2004), Pila (2005), Parco Arrondo (2013), Rodríguez Quijada (2016),and Romero, Bacallao, Vinueza, Chávez & Vaca (2015).

    The tests used for the physical assessment specifically evaluate the fitness out of the pool. This kind of physical training is very important for them to master the basic swimming techniques and for the development of physical conditions in swimmers. The physical condition indicators are based on the standards of physical efficiency and the necessity of forming future swimmers. Physical training is conceived as the implementation of the methodology, the means and an optimal dosage of the athlete outside the pool, so that it allows an execution of the moves similar to the exercise in the water (Pérez Delgado y otros, 2011).

    Moraes & Romero (2015) think that as a last resort, in the selection is important to follow the conservative not compensable indicators, for example as height is not a conservative indicator it does not change with training and is not compensable either, since a short swimmer cannot compensate height by developing other non-conservative indicators, because the rest of the swimmers also develop those indicators.

    Unfortunately, abilities per se are not a gurantee for success, since the stable properties and qualities of the possible talent to have influence on a successful activity are developed on the basis of the unity of genetic and acquired abilities, that is to say, those inherited and developed during growth.

    The present paper aims to create standards for the massive selection of possible swimming talents of Ecuador, in children aged 7-10 years old, based on physical training outside the pool.

Material and methods

    This research included various sports in Ecuador, and the paper shows the results of a test applied to girls and boys of 19 provinces of Ecuador:

  1. Height.

  2. Cormic index: 100 (Seated height/Standing height %), both measured in centimetres.

  3. arm’s length (cm).

  4. 30 m fly test with 10 m impulse (measured in seconds).

  5. long jump without impulse run (measured in centimetres).

  6. Abs workout in 30 seconds (measured in repetitions).

  7. elbow flexions in face down position (measured in repetitions).

  8. 600 m run (measured in minutes, seconds and milliseconds.

    The research is aimed at guaranteeing a systematic sport reserve in the country according to the national biological characteristics of the practitioners and the level of physical preparation outside the pool.

    The indicators of the fitness level were evaluated 10 points each for a total of 50 points in the overall test without considering the anthropometric values.

    For the qualitative assessment were established the following standards:

  • Excellent: More than45 points.

  • Very Good: 41-45 points.

  • Good: 36-40 points.

  • Pass: 25-35points

    The study was applied on a sample of 78 female swimmers (20 aged 7-8 years and 58 aged 9-10 years) and 72 male swimmers (33 aged 7-8 and 39 aged 9-10 years old) for a total of 150 swimmers.

Results and discussion

    In the research were established the motor results of continue and minimum levels and the anthropometric standards of minimum reference to select a boy or a girl for massive swimming aged 7-8 and 9-10 years.

    The aspects evaluated include pure fastness, the resistance of upper limbs and trunk, and the jump power, typical of the level of explosive force, and the measurement of mid resistance.

    To study the anthropometric indicators was made an analysis of the percentile values, for which were considered values among the 70 and 90 percentiles (Table 1) and as a standard they must be achieved to be accepted. In the case of physical training the percentiles were established among 10-90. Every child fulfilling the values among 50-70 in the physical standards is approved, whatever the indicator. That guarantees a large reserve that with time might show their potential for swimming.

Table 1. Anthropometric minimum standards of reference

7-8 female

7-8 male

Standing height (cm)

Cormic Index

Arm's length

(cm)

Standing height (cm)

IC

Arm's length

(cm)

133-136

50,7-50.1

133-135

136-142

50,6-48,2

139-142

9-10 female

9-10male

147-151

49,6-47,8

147-158

140-147

47,7-39,6

144-146

    It is important that coaches use other indicators which are relevant for sport scouting, especially those related to growth or development of their physical training so that the evolution of the child could be considered in a 6-18 months period.

Table 2. Entry standards for female swimming 7-8 years old

Moments for the implementation of the standards

Total of points

30 m fly test

(sec)

Long jump w/o impulse

(cm)

Abs

30 sec

(Rep.)

Elbow flexions 30 sec

(Rep.)

600 m

run

Min)

Not achieved

1

8,54-7,08

96-100

8-9

5

4.47-3.58

2

7,07-6,48

101-104

10-11

6-7

3.57-3.51

3

6,47-6,37

105-111

12-13

8-9

3.50-3.48

4

6,36-6,26

112-118

14-15

10-12

3.47-3.43

At entry

5

6,25-5,94

119-123

16

13

3.42-3.36

6

5,93-5,42

124-132

17

14-15

3.35-3.27

7

5,41-5,35

133-141

18

16

3.26-3.13

At the end of first year

8

5,34-4,95

142-149

19

18

3.12-3.01

At the end of second year

10

4,95-4,88

149-155

20and more

19 and more

3.01-2.59

    The sport selection for swimming specifically is a process that takes time, the coaches and teachers should carry out a continuous follow up to its evolution. Thus, once the training year concludes, the test should be applied again to assess the evolution of the child. That assessment is described in Table 3 in the “at the end of the first year” square. With that data the growth rate can also be assessed by subtracting the first year numbers to the initial ones.

    A similar method is performed by the end of the second year of training, which shows the evolution of the children that have initiated in this sport.

Table 3. Entry standards for female swimming 9-10 years

Moments for the implementation of the standards

Total of points

30 m fly test

(sec)

Long jump w/o impulse

(cm)

Abs

30 sec

(Rep.)

Elbow flexions 30 sec

(Rep.)

1000 m

run

Min)

Not achieved

1

7,17-6,61

106-111

8-9

5

3.50-3.49

2

6,60-6,36

112-116

10-11

6-7

3.48-3.17

3

6,35-6,28

117-120

12-13

8

3.16-3.10

4

6,27-6,15

121-128

14

9

3.09-3.05

At entry

5

6,14-5,71

129-133

15

10-13

3.04-3.01

6

5,70-5,60

134-137

16

14-15

3.00-2.52

7

5,59-5,28

138-144

17

16

151-2.45

At the end of first year

8

5,27-4,93

145-154

18-19

17-19

2.44-2.39

At the end of second year

10

4,93-4,83

154-160

20-21

20-21

2.38-2.32

    The assessment of the height with data that reflect absolute rates and results should be considered as relevant.

    The results of the cormic index show the predominance of the lower limbs length over the upper part of the body, so the data inferior to 50 % reflect that the lower limbs are longer in proportion to the upper part of the body, features that are common in this sport.

Table 4. Entry standards for male swimming 7-8 years old

Moments for the implementation of the standards

Total of points

30 m fly test

(sec)

Long jump w/o impulse

(cm)

Abs

30 sec

(Rep.)

Elbow flexions 30 sec

(Rep.)

600 m

run

Min)

Not achieved

1

7,51-6,87

98-100

5

3

4.06-3.58

2

6,86-6,60

100-108

6

4

3.57-3.43

3

6,59-6,42

108-110

7-9

5-7

3.42-3.39

4

6,41-6,35

111,114

10-11

8

3.38-3.28

At entry

5

6,34-6,25

115-119

12

9

3.27-3.02

6

6,24-6,09

120-121

13-14

10

3.01-2.59

7

6,08-5,71

122-127

1516

11

2.58-2.53

At the end of first year

8

5,70-5,31

128-137

17

12

2.52-2.46-

At the end of second year

10

< 5,31-5,21

< 138-140

18-19

13-14

< 2.45--2.36

 

Table 5. Entry standards for male swimming 9-10 years

Moments for the implementation of the standards

Total of points

30 m fly test

(sec)

Long jump w/o impulse

(cm)

Abs

30 sec

(Rep.)

Elbow flexions 30 sec

(Rep.)

1000 m

run

Min)

Not achieved

1

6,69-6,19

114-118

8

5

4.04-3.55

2

6,18-5,78

119-124

9

6

3.54-3.47

3

5,77-5,55

125-130

10-13

7-9

3.46-3.18

4

5,54-5,43

131-135

14-15

10-11

3.17-3.03

At entry

5

5,42-5,34

136-138

16

12-14

3.02-2.51

6

5,33-5,25

139-144

17-18

15-17

2.50-2.44

2.50-2.37

7

5,24-4,96

145-153

19-20

18-19

2.43-2.36

At the end of first year

8

4,95-4,84

154-187

21-22

20

2.35-2.32

At the end of second year

10

 

4,84-4,64

 

188-191

23-24

21-22

2.31-2.29

    The results of the research related to the arm’s length are very important, because this indicator shows the length of the arms and the width of the trunk, which are essential in swimming. It indicates that the possible talents with longer arms have the potential for the sport, given its significance in the displacement on the pool in each swimming cycle. Thus, for example, an article of the BBC (2008) read that Phelps has an arm’s length of 2.08m and a size of 196 cm. That is to say that the former is higher than the latter, which provides him with perfect leverage to advance in the water.

    In regard to arm’s length and size in the first ages (Gabulli Rojas, 2000) explains that a normal length of the arms for the age is not longer than 4.0 cm different from the average size for that age. During childhood, this measure is inferior to the size, and becomes equal at the age of 10 in boys and at 12 in girls to finally surpass it, as the results of this paper confirm.

    As Puentes & Romero (2016) explain there is an agreement with the literature consulted about the significance of the creation of scales for sport selection, as the ones established by Flores, Calero, Arancibia & García (2014a,b).

Conclusions

  • The results described on the charts of this paper constitute assessment standards for physical condition outside the pool of future swimmers, who begin practicing the sport at the age of 7-10, and they are also pedagogical indicators that act in the process.

  • The results of the anthropometric values confirm similar studies in children, associated with differential values between size and arm’s length and allow establishing that those children with an arm’s length higher than the size have potential for the sport.

  • The results become references to set the growing rate of different indicators studied and allow an effective feedback of the physical and anthropometrical evolution of the children from a 1-4 year period.

Acknowledgements

    To the coaches and swimming teachers of the country that helped measuring the indicators. In particular to the Ecuador Sport Federation for their huge support in the development of this research study.

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