Team final standings and individual technical skills.
Faculty of Sports Science and Physical Education|
University of Porto
The aims of this study are the following: (1) to identify the degree of relationship between team final standings and individual skills performance, and (2) to compare, from the point of view of individual skills, basketball players of different performance level. This second aim is related to the hypothesis that players sub-division is highly related to their technical skills. The sample comprises 246 Basketball players, 12 to 14 years old, belonging to 21 teams They played in official competitions of Porto Basketball Association in 1998/99 season. Teams were presented in 4 series of competition (A, B, C e D) of different performance levels, according to their standings in a preview tournament. Technical skills were evaluated according to Basketball Test Battery from AAPHERD (Kirkendall, 1987). Pearson correlation and ANOVA were used as data analytic techniques. ANOVA showed significant differences between series A, B, C and D: Pass (F=34.426, p=0.000), Dribbling (F=23.986, p=0.000), Shooting (F=14.753, p=0.000) and Defense Movement (F=6.131, p=0.000). Scheffé f test confirmed the previous differences among the competing groups. Pearson correlation between technical indicators and team final standings were: Pass (r=0.741, p=0.000, r2=55%), Dribbling (r=0.641, p=0.001, r2=41%), Shooting (r=0.722, p=0.000, r2=52%) and Defense Movement (r=0.219, p=0.341, r2=4.8%). Conclusions: (1) there is a strong relationship between offensive technical indicators (Pass, Dribbling and Shooting) and team final standings, and (2) the results present important criterion-referenced values for pre-selection purposes in this age group.
Key words: Basketball. Individual skills. Youth players.
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One of the most important investigation areas in Sport Sciences is related to the need of explain, predict or even to advance the athletes’ success. From their own experience, coaches believe that this success can be explained by the players’ technical skill quality observed during the game (Queiroz, 1986; Lorente, 1988; Brunet, 1988; Araújo, 1992; Salamanca, 1994). From this point, it seems important to confirm if the highest talented athletes from a technical skill analysis belong to better performance teams, as referred in the literature (Hopkins, 1977; Blaskovic & Milanovic, 1985; Brooks et al., 1987; Brandão, 1995). In other words, in those who have better final standings in a competition. On the other hand, it is also important to know if in lower age steps, which are related to early learning stages, the larger investment in training guided for the acquisition and development of the technical skill performance is justified and responsible for team different performance level.
Therefore, the aims of this study are the following:
To identify the degree of relationship between teams final standings and individual skill performance;
To compare, from the point of view of individual skills, basketball players of different performance level. This second aim is related to the hypothesis that player’s sub-division is highly related to their technical skills.
2. Material and methods
The sample comprises 246 Basketball players, 12 to 14 years old, belonging to 21 teams. They played official competitions of Porto Basketball Association. Teams were presented in 4 series of competition (SA, SB, SC and SD), of different performance levels, according to their standings in a preview tournament.
Technical skills were evaluated according to Basketball Test Battery from AAPHERD (Kirkendall, 1987).
The Analysis of Variance was used to compare the technical skill performance in the 4 series (SA, SB, SC and SD). Pearson Product-Moment Correlation and Linear Regression were used in order to examine the relationship between team final standings and their achievements in each of the technical indicators. The significance level was 5%.
The mean comparison of technical indicators in the 4 series of competition is expressed in Tables 3.1. and 3.2. (ANOVA of independent measures and following confirmations for the Scheffé F test, respectively).
Table 3.1. Results of mean comparison among the different series
78.611 ± 9.293
69.162 ± 7.392
64.729 ± 6.982
17.479 ± 1.014
19.2 ± 1.78
18.305 ± 1.4
19.554 ± 1.796
35.083 ± 5.352
32.118 ± 5.346
31.069 ± 6.327
27.81 ± 7.124
21.701 ± 2.465
23.184 ± 3.219
21.768 ± 2.154
23.253 ± 2.6
* Significant statistically values for p < 0.05
These results show significant differences among the series for all the technical indicators (Pass: F=34.426, p=0.0001; Dribbling: F=23.986, p=0.0001; Shoot: F=14.753, p=0.0001; Defensive Sliding: F=6.131, p=0.0005).
Table 3.2. Comparisons a posteriori (Scheffé F-test)
SA vs. SB
SA vs. SC
SA vs. SD
SB vs. SC
SB vs. SD
SC vs. SD
* Significant statistically values for p < 0.05
The results of the comparison à posteriori (see Table 3.2.) are the following:
Pass and Shoot are similar between SB vs. SC. For all the other pairs of comparisons it is evident the difference among the series;
For the Dribbling, all the comparisons between series are different unless between SB vs. SD;
The Defensive Sliding shows differences between SA vs. SB, SA vs. SD, SB vs. SC, and SC vs. SD.
The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation (r) between technical indicators and team final standings, as well as the values of common variance (r2) for the same indicators, are expressed in Table 3.3.
Table 3.3. Correlation values and of common variance between the technical indicators and the final classification.
The strongest relationship with the team final standings were established by the Pass (r=0.741) and Shoot (r=0.722). Moderated correlation was registered between the Dribbling and team final standings (r=0.641). The lowest value of correlation was observed for Defensive Sliding (r=0.219, p>0.05).
The study of the regression between technical indicators and team final standings are presented in Pictures 3.1., 3.2., 3.3. and 3.4.
Picture 3.1. Relationship between Pass and team final standings.
Picture 3.2. Relationship between Dribbling and team final standings.
Picture 3.3. Relationship between Shoot and team final standings.
Picture 3.4. Relationship between Defensive Sliding and team final standings.
Pass had the highest value of common variance (55%) followed by the Shoot (52%) and the Dribbling (41%). The lowest value of common variance was registered for the Defensive Sliding (4,8%).
The study of the association between team final standings and the performance is a central subject in sport. In Basketball, this subject has been treated with some depth, namely in the recent studies of Hoffman et al. (1996) and Lidor & Arnon (1997). These authors appealed to indicators focused in the game and variables related to conditioning and coach's opinion. Though, in the domain of young Basketball players, the idea is to improve athletes' basic skill qualities. Based upon this methodological strategy, does it make sense to say that highly technical skill athlete plays in the better performance teams? In fact, our results confirm this idea. Generally speaking, the players with best results in technical skill evaluation play for better teams (SA), in contrast with those with the worst results who plays in lowest performance teams (SD). Another purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between 4 technical skills and the team final standings. Based on our results it can be concluded that Pass, Dribbling and Shoot explain 55%, 41% and 52% respectively, of the team final standings variation. This association values contrast sharply with the association value between the final classification and the Defensive sliding (4,8%).
For the coaches, the significance of these results allow to solidify the idea of the largest importance of the Individual Offensive indicators face to the Individual Defensive Technique, in the strict domain of Basketball performance for youth players. Ultimately, it is possible to say that technical skill performance is one of the best measures of success for the player and for the team, and definitely a better chance for success is to endow these young athletes with "tools" of the game focused mainly on Individual Offensive Technical Skills.
From the results of our study it is possible to present the following conclusions:
There is a strong relationship between offensive technical indicators (Pass, Dribbling and Shooting) and team final standings;
The results present important criterion-referenced values for pre-selection purposes in this age group.
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revista digital · Año 6 · N° 30 | Buenos Aires, febrero de 2001
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