Challenges and dilemas faced by the university new teacher
Los dilemas y retos que enfrenta el profesorado novel universitario
Universidad Central del Ecuador
Dra. Margarita Angélica Medina Nicolalde
Dr. Milton Patricio Tapia Calvopiña
Dr. Milton David Tapia Medina
The new university teachers should be concerned about the dilemmas they face in their professional performance and the challenges they must face nowadays, in the institutions of higher education, which has an impact on the effectiveness of the teaching process. The aim of this study is to describe and analyze the problems faced by the new university teaching staff and the new challenges in their educational work and its impact on the student’s learning process, for which a systematic bibliographic review was carried out. The teaching staff has adequate training in the different disciplinary areas, but they have poor pedagogical training and social skills. In the first years of teaching, they face a reality for which they were not prepared, in which they are not only teaching but also have to fulfill other kind of activities such as: teaching, researching, academic managing and linking with the society.
Keywords: University teaching staff. Novice teacher. Higher education. Teaching activities.
En las instituciones de educación superior deben preocuparse del profesorado universitario novel por los dilemas que enfrenta en su desempeño profesional y los retos que debe enfrentar en la actualidad lo que repercute en la enseñanza eficaz. El objetivo de este estudio describir y analizar sobre los problemas que enfrenta el profesorado novel universitario y los nuevos retos en su quehacer educativo y su incidencia en el aprendizaje de los estudiantes, para lo cual se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sistemática. El profesorado cuenta con una adecuada formación en las diferentes áreas disciplinares, pero presentan una deficiente formación pedagógica y en habilidades sociales, en los primeros de docencia enfrenta una realidad a la que no estuvo preparado, en la no solo se dedica a la docencia sino por lo contrario las actividades que deben cumplir son de: docencia, investigación, dirección o gestión académica y vinculación con la sociedad.
Palabras clave: Profesorado universitario. Profesor novel. Educación superior. Actividades docentes.
Reception: 04/05/2017 - Acceptance: 11/11/2017
1st Review: 10/09/2017 - 2nd Review: 11/06/2017
|Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, Revista Digital. Buenos Aires, Año 22, Nº 234, Noviembre de 2017. http://www.efdeportes.com/||
1 / 1
In the report of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development entitled "Teachers are important: attracting, training and retaining efficient teachers" (OECD, 2009), it is highlighted the important role that teachers play in the learning process:
"The quality of the teachers and their way of teaching are more important factors to get the students to have good results [...]. It is also evident that the effectiveness of teachers varies from one to another. The differences related to the student’s performance are often greater within the same school than from one school to another. Teaching is a demanding job and it is not possible for all those involved to be effective professionals and to remain that way through time (OECD, 2009, p.17).
Marcelo (2001) writes about some questions that teachers should consider: "We have entered a society that demands from the professionals a permanent training and learning activity. And for this reason it is necessary to answer several questions such as: How do these changes affect teachers? How should we rethink the teacher's work in these new circumstances? How should new teachers be trained? Which are the main professional skills the teachers must develop? How do we adapt the knowledge and attitudes of teachers to respond and take advantage of the new opportunities that the information society offers us? What new educational and school scenarios are possible / desirable? (p.532).
The university has to face quick changes and different challenges that occur in society so it must be able to adapt itself in order to form cultured and lucid human beings who can interpret reality (Lang & others, 2012; Tim Butler University of East London & Mike Savage Keele University, 2013; Littlewood, Glorieux & Jönsson, 2017), to foresee new ways, to contribute to the creation of new models that help in the solution of problems and to integrate the uncertainty into rationality (López, 2004), and be able to generate and lead changes in society and influence in a forceful, permanent and effective way in all areas (Barrón, 2009).
At present day, higher education institutions mutate (Siemens & Matheos, 2012; Astin, 2012; Kwiek, 2014; Hazelkorn, 2015). However, in a context that seems to be dominated by technologies, once again, the figure of the university teaching staff emerges as the central structure of the new building, which, like many other professionals, must reconstruct a professional identity adapted to the new roles and functions that will be developed in the new performance scenarios (Rodríguez, 2003).
The scenarios of professional performance where the university professor develops his activity experience unstoppable changes (Más, 2011), these changes have to do with the transition of professions and disciplines towards the frontiers of knowledge and its paradigms, the complexity, inter and transdisciplinarity; the transculturality and the ecology of knowledge in the management of knowledge itself and its learning; the social innovation as a consequence of the integration of the three substantive functions of higher education (teaching, research and links with society) (Larrea, 2016). In the same way they have been modified the forms of production, labor relations, science, technology, the ways of creating and disseminating culture, the excessive amount of information, the way students learn by solving problems have been modified. participation, decision-making, curiosity, the opening to their environment and being respectful of the other, the scientific inquiry, learning to deal with contexts of permanent and quick change, in their students ensuring significant learning opportunities to be as close as they can be to the reality for all, so it is necessary to have a university teaching staff ready to face these challenges (Rodríguez et al., 2017, Rodríguez & Altamirano, 2016, Da Silva & Tejada, 2016 Cebrián & Junyent, 2014, Vezub & Alliaud, 2012, Más, 2011, López, 2004).
The aim of this study is to describe and analyze the problems faced by the new university teaching staff and the new challenges in their educational work and their impact on the student’s learning, for which a systematic bibliographic review was carried out.
For the making this work, it has been considered what was proposed by Sánchez & Botella (2010), applicable to revisions. In this sense, it is intended to answer the question of the problems faced by the new university teaching staff in its professional performance. For this purpose, a search of studies was carried out according to the following criteria for the selection of material related to: new university professors, university teachers’ competences and problems faced by the new teachers. Once the selection criterion of the studies was established, the search process was carried out.
An exhaustive review of scientific literature was carried out from 51 bibliographical sources, the materials used were research articles, theoretical articles, books and doctoral theses made during the 1995-2017 period. The search engines used for the review were ISOC (Social Sciences and Humanities), Redalyc, Dialnet Plus and Google Academic with the following keywords: new university teaching staff, university professors, university teaching staff’s competences and problems faced by the new teachers.
Based on the scientific literature analyzed, an interpretative review of the information found was made, distinguishing between research studies and theoretical works. In relation to the analysis of the information, this was carried out in an inductive manner. As the material was studied, different elements and foundations emerged in relation to the problems faced by the new teachers and their impact on their professional performance which in order to facilitate a better understanding and exposure were divided according to a double vision: from the perspective of the theory and from the perspective of the person who teaches (new university professor) the problems he faces and the new challenges he must face confront in the university (Abad et al., 2013; Sánchez, 2010).
The novel teacher
The Dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy of Language defines the term novel as:
1. adj. Who starts practicing an art or a profession, or has little experience in them. U. t. c. s.
Any applicant to a place of work that performs a process of initial formation, which begins to exercise a trade or other activity and is still inexperienced in it, is considered novel (Bozu, 2009, p.320).
It is understood by beginners, those aspiring teachers to a job, who have graduated from the initial training programs (undergraduate) and start to practice their profession. To differentiate this population of teachers, it is usually made a reference to the number of years in the teaching career. Some authors place it between the first and third year; in higher education it can be extended, approximately, until the first seven years (Jiménez, Angulo & Soto, 2010).
The beginning in teaching
In Ecuador, when new regulations were implemented, the university teachers with experience retired and later these vacancies were filled with new teachers. In higher education institutions, the university teaching staff has access to teaching with a wide preparation as specialists in different disciplinary areas, but on the other hand, they have a poor pedagogical training and social skills. University teachers are professionals who rigorously master the technical contents related to the subject they teach, but they lack specific pedagogical training to carry out the effective delivery of their teaching (Carrillo, 2015; Sánchez & Mayor, 2006). This has an impact on their teaching management, on the relationships between teachers and between teachers and students (Benedito, Imbernón & Félez, 2001).
The initiation to teaching is the period that covers the first years. It is a stage of intensive tensions and learning in generally unknown contexts, during which the new teachers must acquire professional knowledge, in addition to the maintenance of a certain personal balance (Marcelo, 1999). Veenman (1984, cited by Tolentino, Rodríguez & Martínez, 2011) related to the situation experienced by many teachers in their first year of teaching, a process of intense learning of the trial-error type, determined by a principle of survival and the predominance of the ethics of the practical, which is called "reality shock". The particular characteristics of the work, the specific conditions in which it starts and other factors of a personal nature will greatly determine the development of this period and the associated problems to it, the new teacher affirms that there is a lack of support from the department and university and they regret a lack of initial training in university teaching (Feixas, 2002).
The new teachers are subjected to tensions, where they begin to socialize with their new classmates and the rest of the educational community and experience possible problems in their management of the class (Del Castillo et al., 2008).
At present, it is considered important the formation of the new teachers and their incidence in the educational task. For this reason, studies related to this topic have been carried out. Thus, a group of several university professors from different Spanish universities (AENUI- Association of University Teachers of Information Technology) prepared, at the beginning of 2006, a guide for the new teacher in which the reader can find 70 tips that can be used to help the new teacher in his work of directing the learning of his students, counting on a baggage quite wider than the simple intuition. Although this book does not cover many aspects of university teaching, the authors of the "Guide for the novice teacher" propose some tips that can help the new teacher in his work of directing the teaching and learning process of his students, counting with concrete and applicable advices and directing some actions that the experience has shown them to be important and useful (Cernuda et al., 2005).
The new teachers face the new educational scenarios. There is a long way from the saying to the fact
The new teachers face unknown contexts, which generates tensions and the need to acquire a professional knowledge that allows them to maintain a certain personal balance, for that reason the factors involved are studied, to mention an essential example, in employability, as defined in Rodríguez et al. (2016) quotes Geeregat, Cifuentes & Villarroel (2016). In these first years the teacher frequently lives with uncertainty, the change in the way of perceiving the time, the internal crisis he faces due to the ignorance of many things, the indecision and feeling of incapacity before the new tasks and demands that must face in the teaching The result of these insecurities is the difficulty of facing new challenges and solving the difficulties of the university teaching task (Benedito, Imbernón & Félez, 2001, Vezub & Alliaud 2012, Buckingham & Willett, 2013).
Novice teachers generally face unknown contexts, which generates tensions and the need to acquire professional knowledge that allows them to maintain a certain personal balance. The first years sometimes represent a "clash with reality", it is a process of intense learning -of the trial-error type in most cases-, and characterized by a survival principle, and by a predominance of the value of the practical (Marcelo, Gallego-Domínguez & Mayor, 2016, Marcelo et al., 2016). The imbalance that occurs between the theoretical and ideal schemes learned in institutions and the complex, dizzying and chaotic functioning of the reality at school. The distance between the training received and the urgencies of the practice. The theoretical (or practical) models learned "clash" with reality, with the characteristics of the classrooms and of certain students. It is common for new teachers to feel limited / unable to work with "difficult" students from different cultural contexts, since they cannot adapt themselves or generate effective teaching methods (Vezub & Alliaud 2012).
It is a period of tensions and intensive learning in generally unknown contexts and during which the new teachers must build professional knowledge in addition to maintain a certain personal balance.
Most beginning teachers live their first year of work in teaching as a problematic and stressful experience; where they develop their own professional identity: a self-concept about how I am as a teacher and, at the same time, they have to learn how to use the personal available resources to successfully face teaching situations. There is also a process of change and reorganization of the knowledge, values, attitudes and concepts that the teacher has developed during his initial training process, until the beginning teacher manages to develop his own teaching style (Bozu, 2010; 2009).
For many young teachers, it is a solitary learning, without special aids and, therefore, fundamentally, a learning experience. He lacks of free time, is recharged of bureaucratic work, has excessive teaching load, also has doubts regarding subjects about discipline, motivation and attention of the individual differences of their students and lacks a variety of didactic strategies that can be used in the process of teaching and learning (Rodríguez, 2015).
According to Marcelo (2009), beginners are more concerned with step-by-step instructions, and the "how" questions than about the "why" and "when" issues of teaching. Therefore, he proposes to incorporate these two aspects, undermined by the new ones, to achieve an "effective" professional development, capable of generating innovations and going beyond skills oriented to the "efficiency" and adaptation to new situations. The main tasks faced by the novice teachers are the following: to acquire knowledge about the students, the curriculum and the school context, to design the curriculum and teaching properly, to begin to develop a teaching repertoire that allows them to survive as teachers, to create a community of learning in the classroom and continue to develop their professional identity (Marcelo & Vaillant, 2009).
While learning the rules of their institutional work contexts, the beginning teachers are concerned about maintaining discipline and control of the class. Some studies have identified the uncritical imitation of behaviors observed in other teachers, the isolation of their peers, the difficulty to transfer the knowledge acquired in their training stage and the development of a technical conception of teaching, is in a process of learning to teach (Vezub & Alliaud, 2012). Therefore, the new teachers deploy a series of strategies, among which predominate: the abandonment of the initial optimism, the adaptation to institutional culture, school routines and the status quo established by the most experienced colleagues (Rodríguez et al., 2016).
Some problems faced by the new teachers have been identified, the same ones that are raised by Marcelo, Gallego-Domínguez & Mayor (2016); Alliaud (2014); Vezub & Alliaud (2012); Negrillo & Iranzo (2009), Sánchez & Mayor (2006); Imbernón (2004) and Feixas (2002). These problems are detailed in a general way in table 1:
Table 1. List of problems faced by the new teachers in the universities
The new teacher abandons his teaching work for being unsatisfied with his work due to low salaries, discipline problems with the students, lack of support, and few opportunities to participate in decision making (Marcelo, Gallego-Domínguez & Mayor, 2016).
In addition to teaching, what should new teachers do at the university?
Higher education institutions must promote an academic model that is characterized by the investigation of problems in their contexts; the production and transfer of the social value of knowledge; the joint work with the communities; scientific, technological, humanistic and artistic research based on the explicit definition of problems to be addressed, a fundamental solution for the development of the country or region, and the well-being of the population; an active work of dissemination, linked to the creation of citizen awareness based on respect for human rights and cultural diversity; an extension work that enriches the training, collaborates in detecting problems for the research agenda and creates spaces for joint action with different social actors, especially the most neglected ones. (UNESCO, 2008, p. 18-19).
The university activity is developed under three parameters fundamentally. The university professor is entrusted with teaching tasks, and education is a social act that is constructed through communicative action, understood as the process by which we exchange ideas and affections. In addition to teachers, university professors carry out research tasks, to create scientific knowledge and thus improve their scientific field, to offer new methodological proposals adapted to their students and subjects, to innovate in their reality and in their context; this commits them to work teams with whom they carry out various projects, for they are asked to manage resources, process documents and carry out management activities. Thus, the university teaching staff is characterized by being professionals with a triple role, since they have to divide the time of their activity between teaching, research and management tasks. But there is a nuance: the central and most awarded activity is research (Sánchez & Mayor, 2006; Más, 2011).
Regarding to the activities of the academic staff, higher education institutions of Ecuador are ruled according to the Career and Ladder Regulations of the Professor and Researcher of the Higher Education System, as determined in Article 6.- Activities of the academic staff.- The professors and researchers of public and private universities and polytechnic schools, holders and non-holders can fulfill the following activities: a) Teaching, b) Research, and, c) Management or academic management. (CES, 2017a), the following is detailed in each of them in table 1.
Table 2. Activities of academic staff
Regulation of Career and Promotion Ladder of the Professor and Researcher of the System of Superior Education (Codification)
activities and academic direction
Teaching face-to-face, virtual or online classes, of a theoretical or
practical nature, in the institution or outside it, under the
responsibility and direction of the same;
Design, direction and execution of basic, applied, technological and art
research projects, involving creation, innovation, dissemination and
transfer of the results obtained;
The government and management of public or private universities and
of connection with society
In universities and public and private polytechnic schools, the activities of connection with society must be framed within the activities of teaching, research or academic management.
Source: CES (2017a) Regulation of Career and Labber of the Professor and Researcher of the System of Superior Education
Higher education institutions select and promote their professors, preferably using criteria of excellence related to the research function. The problem lies on the fact that the current academic culture only recognizes as merit an specific type of production: impact indexes in specialized international journals. The evaluation of teaching competences, didactic publications and other academic merits is always residual because the prestige of a university professor is built from his research curriculum, the social relevance of the positions he performs. The concern to provide a quality education and the results obtained in it do not constitute any merit for promotional purposes. The dominant culture and values in university institutions is a total predominance of research on teaching, to such an extent that we reward good researchers by freeing them of "teaching load" and do not recognize the labor of good teachers by their dedication and know-how. (De Miguel, 2003). Mayor (1996) quotes Ballantine (1989) who affirms that university professors are highly respected for their research work, not teaching, in particular areas. Many teachers consider teaching as an interference to their research and publications, and many others gain high prestige through a second job (consultations, offices...).
The aforementioned, is also evident in Ecuador where research is one of the important elements to be promoted if you are a teacher, and it is so that the Regulation of Career and Labber of the Professor and Researcher of the Higher Education System requested for the promotion of the titular academic staff, having created or published relevant works or articles indexed in the field of knowledge linked to their teaching or research activities; professional updating in learning and research methodologies, and the rest in the field of knowledge linked to their teaching or research activities; it is also mandatory to have directed or participated in one or more research projects; have directed or co-directed professional qualification master's works, research master's thesis or doctoral thesis (CES, 2017a).
Higher education institutions must link their training process with the world of work to take advantage of these actions as an educational tool that enables learning at work and curricular update, respond to social needs, and particularly show respect for cultures and environmental protection. They have to provide professional services, including technology transfer, which contribute to social, economic and technological development, promote a way to integrate theory and practice and apply knowledge and research results to current problems. Thus, encouraging the spirit of enterprise and the corresponding capabilities and initiatives has to become one of the main concerns of higher education. Special attention should be given to the functions of higher education at the service of society, and more specifically to activities aimed at eliminating poverty, intolerance, violence, illiteracy, hunger, environmental degradation and diseases, and the activities aimed at the promotion of peace, through an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach (UNESCO, 1998, Gould, 2002).
The Regulation of Academic Regime in relation to the Linkage with the Society in Art. 82 determines the following: [...] Higher education institutions must have a model of connection with society, which ensures the integration of the three substantives functions of higher education: teaching, research and links with society; for the management of knowledge according to their domains, lines of research, current academic offer and needs of the community at the local, national and regional levels; responding to the principle of relevance. Institutions of higher education may create specific institutional instances to manage the link with society, in order to generate programs, specific projects or interventions of public interest (CES, 2017b).
The link with society is one of the important pillars in the functioning and development of a career that along with teaching and research is the stage for the generation and construction of knowledge and learning from the social practice that is oriented to the development and social change.
The institutions of higher education face mutations in a dizzying way they were not prepared for. This demands the university professors to have the necessary competences that allow them to perform efficiently their work. The changes that have taken place in Ecuador have caused the university experienced teaching staff to retire and these vacancies are filled with new teachers.
The study has allowed to identify certain problems that should be considered by educational institutions in relation to the new university teaching staff:
It has a good academic preparation in the different disciplinary areas, but in many of them they have a deficient pedagogical formation and in social skills which have an influence in the effectiveness of their way of teaching.
The first years of teaching they face a reality for which they were not prepared such as the relationship with students, teachers and authorities, so they must rebuild a professional identity that adapts to the new roles and functions that will develop in the new action scenarios (Rodríguez, 2003).
They are not only dedicated to teaching but, on the contrary, to other activities like: teaching, research and management or academic management. And the activities of connection with society must be framed in the previous ones. It is evident that the research activity gives more prestige to the teacher.
The new university teaching staff has a great importance in higher education institutions, so they must have training processes that allow them to have success in teaching, research, management or academic management, as well as in the relationship with society.
Abad, M. et al. (2013). Fundamentos pedagógicos de la enseñanza comprensiva del deporte: Una revisión de la literatura. Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte, 9, 8, 137-146.
Alliaud, A. (2014). Las políticas de desarrollo profesional del profesor principiante en el Programa de Acompañamiento de Docentes Noveles en su Primera Inserción Laboral de Argentina. Revista Brasileira de Educação 19 (56), 229-259.
Astin, A. W. (2012). Assessment for excellence: The philosophy and practice of assessment and evaluation in higher education. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Barrón, M. (2009). Docencia universitaria y competencias didácticas. Perfiles Educativos, XXXI (125), 76-87.
Benedito, V., Imbernón, F. & Félez, B. (2001). Necesidades y propuestas de formación del profesorado novel de la Universidad de Barcelona. Profesorado. Revista de Curriculum y Formación del profesorado, 5 (2), 1-24.
Bozu, Z. (2009). El profesorado universitario novel y su proceso de inducción profesional. Magis, Revista Internacional de Investigación en Educación, 2, 317-328.
Bozu, Z. (2010). El profesorado universitario novel: estudio teórico de su proceso de inducción o socialización profesional. Revista Electrónica de Investigación y Docencia (REID), 3, 55-72.
Buckingham, D. & Willett, R. (2013). Digital generations: Children, young people, and the new media. London: Routledge.
Carrillo, C. (2015). Retos del profesorado universitario: Experiencias profesionales de una Docente e investigadora novel en el Ámbito de la formación del Profesorado. Revista de currículum y formación del profesorado, 19 (2), 303-317.
Cebrián, G. & Junyent, M. (2014). Competencias profesionales en Educación para la sostenibilidad: un estudio exploratorio de la visión de futuros maestros. Enseñanza de las Ciencias, 32 (1), 29-49.
Cernuda, A., Llorens, F., Miró, J., Satorre, R. & Valero, M. (2005). Guía para el profesor novel (v 1.0). Universidad de Alicante. Recuperado de http://bioinfo.uib.es/~joemiro/aenui/novel/novel.pdf
Consejo de Educación Superior – CES. (2017a). Reglamento de Carrera y Escalafón del Profesor e Investigador del Sistema de Educación Superior (Codificación). Quito.
Consejo de Educación Superior – CES. (2017b). Reglamento de Régimen Académico. (Codificación). Quito.
Da Silva, L. y Tejada, J. (2016). La formación del profesorado universitario en Cataluña y São Paulo: dilemas y desafíos. Revista Española de Educación Comparada, 27, 193-213. DOI: 10.5944/reec.27.2016.15989
De Miguel, M. (2003). Calidad de la enseñanza universitaria y desarrollo profesional del profesorado. Revista de Educación, 331, 13-34.
Del Castillo, P., Echániz, M., Lorenzo, R. & Romero, A. (2008). ¿Cómo ven los profesores principiantes la formación del profesorado? Primer Congreso Internacional sobre Profesores Principiantes e Inserción en la Docencia, Sevilla, 25 -27 de junio.
Diccionario de la Lengua Española. Edición del Tricentenario. Recuperado de http://dle.rae.es/?id=Qf4kN5e
Feixas, M. (2002). El profesorado novel: Estudio de su problemática en la Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona. Revista de Docencia Universitaria. 2 (1). Recuperado de http://revistas.um.es/redu/article/view/11821/11401
Gould, G. (2002). La administración de la vinculación ¿cómo hacer qué? Tomo I. México: SEP. http://gye.ecomundo.edu.ec/Biblio/Libros_Digitales/Gould%20Bei%20Giacomo/La%20Administracion%20De%20La%20Vinculacion%20Tomo%201.PDF
Hazelkorn, E. (2015). Rankings and the reshaping of higher education: The battle for world-class excellence. Berlín: Springer.
Imbernón, F. (2004). La formación y el desarrollo profesional del profesorado. Sexta edición. Barcelona: Graó.
Jiménez, M., Angulo, F. y Soto, C. (2010). La transición de ser estudiante a ser profesor(a) de ciencias naturales. II Congreso Nacional de Investigación en Educación en Ciencias y Tecnología, Bogotá, 22 de junio.
Kwiek, M. (2014). Structural changes in the Polish higher education system (1990–2010): a synthetic view. European Journal of Higher Education, 4(3), 266-280.
Lang, D. J., Wiek, A., Bergmann, M., Stauffacher, M., Martens, P., Moll, P. et al. (2012). Transdisciplinary research in sustainability science: practice, principles, and challenges. Sustainability science, 7(1), 25-43
Larrea, E. (2016). El Reglamento de Régimen Académico: horizonte de futuro para la construcción de la democracia cognitiva y la innovación social. En R. Ramírez (Coord.), Universidad urgente para una sociedad emancipada. Quito. Recuperado de http://catedras.ciespal.org/unesco/wp-content/uploads/sites/7/2016/04/UniversidadUrgenteRR.pdf
Littlewood, P., Glorieux, I. & Jönsson, I. (2017). Social exclusion in Europe: problems and paradigms. Oxford: Taylor & Francis.
López, G. (2004). Una mirada integral que permita descubrir el sentido y respuestas de la universidad en el futuro. Quito: Mariscal.
Marcelo, C. & Vaillant, D. (2009). Desarrollo profesional docente. ¿Cómo se aprende a enseñar? Madrid: Narcea.
Marcelo, C. (1999). Estudio sobre estrategias de inserción profesional en Europa. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación, 19, 101-143.
Marcelo, C. (2001). Aprender a enseñar para la Sociedad del Conocimiento. Revista Complutense de Educación, 12, (2), 531- 593.
Marcelo, C. (2009). Los comienzos en la docencia: un profesorado con buenos principios. Revista de curriculum y formación del profesorado, 13 (1), 1-25.
Marcelo, C., Gallego-Domínguez, C. & Mayor. (2016). B-learning para inducción del profesorado principiante. El caso del programa INDUCTIO en la República Dominicana. Educación a Distancia, 48-4, 1-28. DOI: 10.6018/red/48/4
Marcelo et al., (2016). La inducción del profesorado principiante en la República Dominicana. El programa INDUCTIO. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación, 71 (2), 145-168.
Más, O. (2011). El profesor universitario: sus competencias y formación. Revista de currículum y formación del profesorado, 15 (3), 195-211.
Mayor, C. (1996). Las funciones del profesor universitario analizadas por sus protagonistas. Un estudio atendiendo al grupo de titulación y los años de experiencia, en la Universidad de Sevilla. Revista Electrónica de Investigación y Evaluación Educativa, 2 (1). https://idus.us.es/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11441/49677/mayor%20ruiz%20las%20funciones%20del%20profesor.pdf?sequence=1
Negrillo, C. & Iranzo, P. (2009). Formación para la inserción profesional del profesorado novel de educación infantil, educación primaria y educación secundaria: hacia la reflexión desde la inducción y el soporte emocional. Profesorado. Revista de currículum y formación del profesorado. 13 (1), 157-182.
OCDE. (2009). Los docentes son importantes: atraer, formar y conservar a los docentes eficientes. Recuperado de http://www.waece.org/enciclopedia/2/Los%20docentes%20son%20importantes.pdf
Rodríguez, Á. (2015). La formación inicial y permanente de los docentes de enseñanza no universitaria del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito y su influencia en los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje, la evaluación institucional, el funcionamiento, la innovación y la mejora de los centros educativos. (Tesis Doctoral inédita). Universidad del País Vasco, España.
Rodríguez, Á. & Altamirano, E. (2016). El pensamiento complejo: ¿Qué debe saber y saber hacer el profesorado universitario en este cambio de época? Visión Empresarial, 6, 101-112.
Rodríguez, Á., Avilez, P., Nicolalde, L., Granda, V. & Angulo, M. (Marzo, 2017). Cuando tenía todas las respuestas, me cambiaron las preguntas. Retos del profesorado universitario. Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes. 21 (226), 1-12. http://www.efdeportes.com/efd226/retos-del-profesorado-universitario.htm
Rodríguez, Á., Granda, V., Gutiérrez, G. & Gómez, M. (2016). La inserción del profesorado novel: Una oportunidad para mejorar su desempeño profesional. Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes. 21 (223), 1-4. http://www.efdeportes.com/efd223/la-insercion-del-profesorado-novel.htm
Rodríguez, S. (2003). Nuevos retos y enfoques en la formación del profesorado universitario. Revista de Educación, 331, 67-99
Sánchez J. & Botella, J. (2010). Revisiones sistemáticas y metaanálisis: Herramientas para la práctica profesional. Papeles del Psicólogo, 31,1, 7-17.
Sánchez, J. (2010). Cómo realizar una revisión sistemática y un meta-análisis. Aula Abierta, 38, 2, 53-64.
Sánchez, M. & Mayor, C. (2006). Los jóvenes profesores universitarios y su formación pedagógica. Claves y controversias. Revista de Educación, 339, 923-946.
Siemens, G. & Matheos, K. (2012). Systemic changes in higher education. In education, 16(1).
Tim Butler University of East London & Mike Savage Keele University. (Eds.). (2013). Social change and the middle classes. London: Routledge.
Tolentino, R., Rodríguez, M. & Martínez, E. (2011). La mirada de los noveles: sus problemas y necesidades en contextos de vulnerabilidad. XI Congreso Nacional de Investigación Educativa. México, 7 al 11 de noviembre.
UNESCO. (1998). Conferencia Mundial sobre la Educación Superior La educación superior en el siglo XXI Visión y acción. París. Recuperado de http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001163/116345s.pdf
UNESCO. (2008). Declaración y Plan de Acción de la Conferencia Regional de Eduacion Superior de America Latina y el Caribe. Cartagena. Recuperado de http://www.unesco.org.ve/documents/DeclaracionCartagenaCres.pdf.
Vezub, L. & Alliaud, A. (2012). El acompañamiento pedagógico como estrategia de apoyo y desarrollo profesional de los docentes noveles. Uruguay. Recuperado de http://www.noveles.edu.uy/acompanamiento_pedagogico.pdf.
Another articles in English
Digital · Año 22 · N° 234 | Buenos Aires,
Noviembre de 2017