Determination of the scale of values for the offensive technical and tactical performance of Cuban volleyball. Part II, the end Determinación de las escalas de valores del rendimiento técnicotáctico ofensivo del voleibol cubano. Parte II, final 

*Departamento de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales. Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Ecuador. Federación Cubana de Voleibol **Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Ecuador. Universidad de Pinar del Río ***Departamento TécnicoMetodológico de la Federación Cubana de Voleibol (Cuba) 
Phd. Santiago Calero Morales* Sp. Celestino Suárez Taboada** Phd. Angie Fernández Lorenzo*** 


Abstract This paper ends its first part already published on Calero; Suárez & Fernández (2012, 2016), which determined the general scales of values of the offensive technical and tactical performance of Cuban volleyball. The present paper describes part of the material and the methods used in the first part to obtain qualitative values derived from data collection in several competitions. We also describe the mathematical models as well as the observational methodology applied. Keywords: Volleyball. Scales. Offensive. Technicaltactical performance. Mathematical model. Observational methodology. Cuba.
Resumen El artículo culmina la primera parte ya publicada en Calero; Suárez & Fernández (20122016), la cual se encargó de determinar escalas de valores generales del rendimiento técnicotáctico ofensivo del voleibol cubano. En el presente trabajo se describe parte del material y los métodos utilizados en la primera parte para obtener los valores cualitativos derivados de la recolección de datos en varios campeonatos. Se describen los modelos matemáticos empleados así como la metodología observacional utilizada. Palabras clave: Voleibol. Escalas. Rendimiento técnicotáctico. Ofensiva. Modelo Matemático. Metodología observacional. Cuba.
Reception: 02/11/2016  Acceptance: 06/20/2016
1st Review: 05/27/2016  2nd Review: 06/16/2016


EFDeportes.com, Revista Digital. Buenos Aires  Año 21  Nº 218  Julio de 2016. http://www.efdeportes.com/ 
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Determination of the scale of values for the offensive technical and tactical performance of Cuban volleyball. Part 1
Introduction
Once the significance of the scale of values is validated in the first part (Calero; Suárez & Fernández, 2012, 2016), the present article shows the observational guide to record the technical and tactical development of highlevel volleyball, as well as the mathematical models used to process the variable registered, allowing to create, based on percentiles 90, 75, 50 and 25 the general qualitative scales that allow evaluating the individual performance of national volleyball players.
The statistical formulas used regulate the variables of the individual technical and tactical performance based on two basic concepts, which are represented by two wellknown words in volleyball, although used and interpreted differently. These models are Effectiveness and Quality, the first only interprets three variables significantly influential in the final performance, two in the numerator and one in the denominator Calero, 2009), while the quality model perfectly delimits each variable used, assigning it a numerical value that depends on its importance, including four or more variables significantly influential (Calero, 2009).
Effectiveness is an equivalent to reality, certainty, security, endurance, guarantee... (Compact Océano, 2006, p. 198). Effectiveness as a formula determines those players who are secure in their performance, that is to say, those that win more points than lose, including the calculation model of Ineffectiveness, indispensable for skills like Block, which usually gives more points to the opponent.
On the other hand, the Quality equation, which...”referring to the possible ways to do things means «class» and is only applied to the degree they have in the good and bad scale...” (Moliner, 1994. p. 464), allows giving each action a different numerical value that will be higher or lower according to the performance.
Summing up, Quality is a quantitative value that represents the gradable implication of each variable registered for the technical and tactical performance in relation with the final performance, which is measurable according to its relationship with the precedent technique, both individual and collective, becoming a unique component.
The isoelastic models to calculate Quality allow incorporating four or more technical and tactical actions, which depend of the technique executed. The numeric values assigned to each variable vary depending on the implication of every technical and tactical action of the final performance. In the present paper are only described those models that processed the variables of the technical and tactical performance of the offensive skills stated in the first part.
Variables of the study
Both, this part as the previously published include the following variables to study the offensive technical and tactical skills (Attack, Block, Serve), which were registered through the observational methodology used by the Cuban Volleyball Federation and digitally available in Calero & Suárez, 2012.
Serve variables
(+) POSITIVE (4)
It is achieved by scoring a direct point making contact with the ball in the opponent’s court; or when the receiver makes contact with the ball thwarting a subsequent action.
(*) ASTERISK (3)
It occurs when the opponent receives the serve and directly sends it to where the service started.
When the rival, after a defective serve receive, has to deliver the ball due to the impossibility of creating an offensive play, both in the second and the third touch of the ball.
(0) ZERO (2)
By receiving the serve, a reduced number of combinations is possible with the setter, when only he has a minimum possibility of passing the ball correctly.
(/) SLASH (1)
This type of evaluation allows that the opponent’s serve receive hits the ball to the more propitious area so that a setter is able to make any kind of tactical combinations (3&2).
() NEGATIVE (0)
If the service touches the net or gets out of the contrary’s area.
If the player commits any kind of technical foul in the service, established in the rules.
Particular considerations of the technical and tactical fundament
When receiving, if the players in charge of the second or third contact with the ball, respectively, does not execute their task previously determined, the serve will be evaluated according to the position of the ball in the court after the receive, for a later record of an opponent’s fault as it corresponds.
If the opponent’s receive send the ball to the best position of the court where all the Attack combinations can be done (3&2), but the height of the ball does not surpass the minimum level established from the navel of the setter, the Serve will not be evaluated with slash (/) but with zero (0).
The record of variables of this fundament varies according to the level. In the case of the first categories, the national leagues, the Olympiads of Cuban Sport and the national youth Olympiads, both masculine and feminine, are sued five variables to record this fundament, due to objectivity problems. In the international competitions sponsored by the International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) the fundament should registered six variables, due to the level of the events.
Attack variables
(+) POSITIVE (4)
If an ace is obtained by making contact with the ball in the opponent’s court.
If the ball is touched by any player when blocking or receiving, but cannot make further contact.
(0) ZERO (2)
If the defense to the attack sends the ball directly in the first contact to the attacker’s court, or the defense or block is limited so that the ball must be easily delivered.
If at the time of the spike the contrary’s block directs the ball to the attacker’s area if and when the support to the attack or the defense turns out to be satisfactory, that is to say it has a positive (+) evaluation or zero (0) that causes an initiative in the rival’s offensive.
(/) SLASH (1)
The defense or the opponent’s blocking is able to contain the projection of the attack, favouring a rival’s counterattack and a pass with at least a positional option.
In the opponent’s block projects the attack to our court and the defense or support to the block is unable to set the ball correctly, causing a delivery to the country.
() NEGATIVE (0)
By committing a technical foul.
By sending the ball against the net or out of the contrary’s area.
If the rival blocks the attacker and scores a point.
Particular considerations of the technical and tactical fundament
In case that in the block skill a technical foul is committed at the time of executing a spike and is noted that the attack is directed against the net or out of the rival’s court limits, the attack will not be taken into account for its quantification (it becomes a rival’s foul for the CB case). If the spike is satisfactorily aimed at the opponent’s area and the opponent’s blocking commits a foul and the defense raise the ball with any kind of quality and the ball makes contact with the rival’s court or the block deflects the ball out of the reach of the players, the spike is evaluated as positive.
If after a defense action, the players in charge of the second or third contact, respectively, do not execute their technical and tactical responsibility previously established while they can satisfactorily continue into the game, the attack will be evaluated according to the location of the ball in the court made by the defense, and therefore the registration of a foul of the opponent as it corresponds.
Block variables
(+) POSITIVE (4)
When blocking the ball makes direct contact with the opponent’s area, scoring a point.
If the ball has been touched by the other team but it couldn’t be kept in the game.
(0) ZERO (2)
If the opponent cannot attack delivering the ball to our grounds.
If a defensive block occurs that allows a defense or support to the own blocking action in relation to the win and if the passer has at least one possibility of tactical combination.
If the opponent’s defense in the first contact with the ball sends it to our grounds.
(/) SLASH (1)
If the ball at the time of being in contact with our grounds must be delivered due to the difficult trajectory.
The support to the attack of the opponent team is able to raise the ball satisfactorily and they can combine with at least one possibility.
() NEGATIVE (0)
When blocking there is contact with the ball deflecting its course, which thwarts defense and subsequent counterattack
When committing a technical foul.
Particular considerations of the technical and tactical performance
In the case of double and triple block regardless of the evaluation of the action, the scale should first registered that who touches the ball and then the rest of the players by order, according to the level of participation. This option will be recorded if it is necessary to know other data related to the Block skill, if the case, by knowing only the player who performed the main action is enough, since only the player responsible will be registered, regardless of the action executed.
Prior agreement, if when attacking on one side of the court there is only one opposite block that makes no contact with the ball and the defense is unable to contain the spike, the negative action will be on the middle blocker for not becoming part of the blocking action, disregarding the value of the defense and the block of another player. If the individual block makes contact with the ball and the action is different from the positive (+) one, the observational evaluation will be added to his performance and to whom the double block concerns.
Every block is computable if and when there is visible contact with the ball.
In the relationship established between blocking and defense, in the case of recording a negative variable, it must be noted which is the responsible of the action, and the negative variable goes to the fundament that most influence had in the loss. If the defense is selected, blocking will be recorded with a slash variable, if there was contact with the ball.
Mathematical models
The process to obtain the scales is determined by the statistic formula to be applied, these are used according to the object of evaluation as well as the possibilities for its record and processing. Tables 1 and 2 describe the scales according to the statistical models of Effectiveness and Quality present in Calero S., 2009, and specified in the first part.
In Table 1 the information is organized from calculations made with mathematical models that process the Effectiveness of the player according to Calero (20072009).
Equations 1 and 2. Effectiveness calculation
Where: Equation 1 shows the effectiveness (Ef) of j= Player; e= Team; c= Championship of A= Technical and Tactical actions; MM= MoreLess index (Equation 3) of Tn= Technique chosen in N= Total of Observations. (Calero, 2009)
Where: Equation 2 obtains Ineffectiveness (Inf) of j= Player; e= Team; c= Championship of A= Technical and Tactical actions; MM= MoreLess index (Equation 3) of Tn= Technique chosen in N= Total of Observations. (Calero, 2009)
Equation 3
Where: Equation 1.3 obtains the MoreLess index (MM) of j (player); e= Team; c=Championship of A= Technical and Tactical actions; Tn= Technique chosen. (Perdomo, 1983; Santana, 1989 and Navelo, 2004)
The previous equations are complemented to make up the effectiveness concept; these are integrated to delimit the technical and tactical performance of players and teams.
The Quality calculations delimit the variables that have significant influence in the final performance, modelling a higher amount of them. The formulas presented eradicate anomalies present in the original models (Calero, 2009). These are represented by the following mathematical structures:
Equation 4. Serve Mathematical Model
Where: Equation 4 obtains Quality for Service (s): j= Player; e= Team; c= Championship of A= A= Technical and Tactical actions; Ts= Serve technique; in N= Total serve observations.
Note: The present equation is used in national competitions in order to obtain more objectivity in the record of the Serve skill. (Calero, 2009)
Equation 5. Block Mathematical Model
Where: Equation 5 obtains Quality(C) from Block : j=player; e= Team; c= Championship of A= Technical and Tactical actions; Ts= Block Technique; in N= Total block observations. (Calero, 2009)
Equation 6. Attack Mathematical Model
Where: Equation 5 obtains Quality (C) of the Attack (a): j= Player; e= Team; c= Championship of A= Technical and Tactical actions; Ts= Attack Technique; in N= Total attack observations. (Calero, 2009)
The absolute frequencies and the calculations are present in Tables 1 and 3, available in the first part of the article (Calero, Suárez & Fernández, 2012) which were previously omitted in order to optimize the first part.
Conclusions
As it was affirmed in the first part, the evaluation scales allow organizing the numerical values obtained with the mathematical models used, providing and organizing qualitative values that allow a detailed evaluation of the individual performance, an aspect that as pedagogical test increases its value.
Bibliography
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