Battery of tests to evaluate the precision of the passes in situations similar to the game in masculine players of the category elite of the Cuban basketball. Proposal to upgrade and to perfect the evaluation models and control, psychological in the high yield
Batería de pruebas para evaluar la precisión de los pases en situaciones semejantes al juego en jugadores masculinos de la categoría élite del baloncesto cubano. Propuesta para actualizar y perfeccionar los modelos de evaluación y control psicológicos en el alto rendimiento
Provincial Direction of Sports Matanzas.
Integral Methodology, Matanzas
MSc. Yoel Yasmani Rodríguez Vega
The making of a battery of tests to evaluate the precision of the passes in the Basketball is a tool that allows the trainers to know how the precision of the technique of the pass behaves in its players in the confrontations, aspect that has its base in control propioceptive, keeping in mind the different situations of the game. With it is given it solution to a problem that is to define in this sport, for the lack of tests to evaluate this component in the passes, in situations similar to those that are confronted in the parties. Their fundamental particularity is given in knowing how the component propioceptivo behaves in situations similar to the game.
Keywords: Basketball. Tests. Passes. Control Propioceptivo. Precision. Evaluation.
La confección de una batería de pruebas para evaluar la precisión de los pases en el Baloncesto es una herramienta que les permita a los entrenadores saber cómo se comporta la precisión de la técnica del pase en sus jugadores en los enfrentamientos, aspecto que tiene su base en control propioceptivo, teniendo en cuenta las diferentes situaciones del juego. Con ello se da solución a una problemática que es definitoria en este deporte, por la carencia de pruebas para evaluar dicho componente en los pases, en situaciones semejantes a las que se confrontan en los partidos. Su particularidad fundamental está dada en conocer cómo se comporta el componente propioceptivo en situaciones semejantes al juego.
Palabras Claves: Baloncesto. Pruebas. Pases. Control propioceptivo. Precisión. Evaluación.
Reception: 07/20/2015 - Acceptance: 09/29/2015
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In the modern Basketball all the educators and strategists coincide in that is need to possess the control of the ball to aspire to a victory in closed ends, this is very important, therefore they should be carried out good passes among the players, for such an end.
For Wissel (2011) the importance that charges the work of this foundation be probably one of the basic pillars on those that the rest of the abilities are sustained, next to the one it dribbles, and the shot. However its technical work in the day by day has left reducing in importance and its impact on the game it is much bigger.
Mora (2009) it outlines that the best Basketball will depend on the interrelation that you/they show in the land the five players performance of each team, when they work with the ball, because a good pass, they are foundations basic essentials that make of this sport, the cooperation and a better partner in function of the community.
Different authors aim that a pass should be quick and precise, with economy of time and movements. The player should achieve a hundred percent of precision, since the loss of the ball product to a pass in a critical moment that can mean points for the opponent when losing the domain of the ball; this situation has caused more than a defeat.
In the game the players of Basketball executes this activity in different situations that you/they go from the pass to make advance the ball from the offensive end to the defensive one or inversely, achieving in some occasions that a pass allows the attack to the hoop or the shot from the stocking and it releases distance, being this corroborated in the observations carried out in the different games of Basketball in the National Tournament of Ascent (NAT) and League Superior of Basketballs (LBS).
Inside the component psicoreguladores that are in the base of the successful execution of the passes he/she is the control propioceptivo. In general, although this thematic one at the present time is study object in the career of Physical Culture, they are scarce the abilities that the trainers possess for the work of the control propioceptivo in this sport in function of the passes and the fundamental orientations to evaluate them, in their different variants.
Antecedents and current state of the topic
The evaluation tasks and control in the Basketball, the trainers guide them mainly to the technician-tactical aspect and the physical preparation, although they don't stop to make it in the other components of the sportsman's preparation. At the present time, in our country, this sport claims a new orientation in these two activities of vital importance to achieve good sport results.
In the Program of Preparation of the Sportsman (SPP), in what concerns to the technical evaluation of the passes, the most essential part doesn't appear to carry out it, we refer to the method that should be used in the evaluation so that this it completes its requirements, as: the form of to control and to qualify, as well as the form of applying, the conditions of standardization among others.
With regard to the above-mentioned the little work is reaffirmed with this technical element in the practices. For what we arrive without knowing in the confrontations how they are the abilities to pass in our athletes and it doesn't really define, neither it models these evaluations in correspondence with what is made in the competitions.
In general this is attributed to the marked difference that it exists among the application of the tests that commonly are guided and the realization of the technique in the real game.
Among the batteries of tests that have been elaborated for the Basketball he/she can mention himself:
The one elaborated by Ruiz (2010) that has as objective to evaluate the effectiveness in shots to the hoop in the Basketball in situations similar to the game.
The test group published for De la Torre (2012) and collaborators that insinuate a battery that evaluates the maximum volume of oxygen, the explosive force, the technical expressions in the entrance to the hoop, the motivation, the adjournment speed, the control of the ball with the dominant hand, the power lactic anaerobic and the theoretical knowledge.
Sainz de la Torre (2011) highlights a group of tests that you/they have been carried out to determine the control propioceptivo in different sports, highlighting three of them in the shot to the hoop.
The author in their thesis in option of the title of Master in Physical Education, the Sport and the Recreation (2014), it elaborates a battery of tests to evaluate the precision of the passes in situations similar to the game in the masculine team of Basketball of 13-15 years of the EIDE of Matanzas. That which was subjected to specialists' approach, that which you/they valued the battery of tests of objective, affordable, with a form of evaluating the psychological component and of possibilities of practical application.
It is for it that the author considers of great importance the adaptation of the tests of the pass that you/they allow to evaluate the control propioceptivo, granting to these a high value, as long as they resemble each other his actions to the competitive activity.
Deepening in the group of processes that you/they regulate the quality of the motive actions in the individual, and especially in the component that occupies us, belonging to the regulation execution, they are the sensations propioceptivas. According to Sainz de la Torre (2011), these they constitute the primary element of the sport technique and they reflect the level of the muscular efforts that is required when we execute an action motorboat, as well as the position and displacement of the different segments of the body in the space.
The fundamental task to which you/they face the studies of the matter consists on getting a battery of tests to evaluate the precision of the passes of the Cuban Basketball in situations similar to the game; ability that is fundamental in the party, because the development of the clarity of the sensations before mentioned they are closely bound to the process of assimilation of the technique of the sport exercises and the formation of the habits motors.
The originality of the topic is based on the process of evaluation of the precision in the passes of this sport, important element that is necessary to upgrade and to perfect in the evaluation models and control in the pyramid of high yield, since the same ones don't incorporate the control and the evaluation of the precision of the passes and they don't include this action in situations similar to the game.
It is for that reason that to elaborate a battery of tests to evaluate the precision of the passes in situations similar to the game in masculine of the category elite of the Cuban Basketball, believe an originality in the topic, when not existing precedence in the country of the existence of a battery of tests that allows to evaluate the efficiency of the passes, under conditions similar to the game whose sustenance is in the control propioceptivo of the sportsmen.
Contribute theoretical methodological
It constitutes a contribution in a theoretical and methodological way, locating to the trainers' disposition a battery of tests that propitiates the diagnosis of this psychological component with application forms and evaluation for the passes in situations similar to the game, constituting an instrument to eradicate the errors of the passes in different contexts.
Results of the previous diagnosis
The carried out diagnosis allowed to specify the behavior of the actions studied during the competitive activity, for they were carried out it the observations of the parties of Basketball LSB, made in the year 2014.
Of the 28 observed games of Basketball the following results of the actions of the carried out passes were obtained that were:
PDD = it Passes after the one it dribbles.
PDRD = it Passes after the defensive rebound.
PDR = it Passes after the reception.
PL = it Happens long.
PJD = it Passes the player without mark.
More actions existed with regard to this technique but they were carried out in the games with less frequency, reason why the author decided to obviate them when selecting the exercises for the battery of tests.
In the case of the passes after the one dribbles he/she decided to select a distance of 7 meters according to De la Paz (2005), because the passes that were observed in the games were indirect, mostly used in these short distances, when there is defenders' presence pressing to the receiver.
In the defensive rebound two actions were articulated, that of the long pass with the early player. This happened after observing two fundamental tendencies given in the confrontations: the first one, was that the players, when jumping in the offensive rebound, carried out shot actions for to score or to look for the lack and the second that were generated on the part of the played teams of offensive when jumping to the defensive rebound many of the times quick, for what the used pass was the long one or of baseball, this pass type one kept in mind when designing the exercise of the battery of tests.
The same thing happens with the passes after the reception that originated in correspondence to the given situation, being this player without mark, in many cases, in a quick action to carry out a shot of three points, for what the passes went to the perimeter.
In the analysis of the defender's presence in the actions of passes gave as a result that:
The intensity with which the parties are played the player he/she was always in action of the pass accompanied by a defender, consequently he/she decided the selection of the position of the defenders that more they were presented to incorporate it in the design of the exercises, the same ones were:
Passive defense 2 - 1 - 2.
Passive defense 3 - 2.
In the case of passive defender's definitions and semi-active defender the author is welcomed to the concepts given by Morales, mentioned by Ruiz (2010). For who the passive defender is that that occupies a correct position to defend his opponent, it maintains the to bend the arms with the palms from the hands to the height of the head and for the sides of the ears inside his own longitudinal plane, it grants him territorial advantage and without carrying out any action that hinders the work of the offensive one.
In the case of the semi-active defender, it will be that that, the same as the passive one, is placed in an appropriate position to defend with the palms from the hands to the height of the head and for the sides of the ears inside their own longitudinal plane, and in him he/she will carry out slight actions in correspondence with their to work as defender that you/they hinder working of the offensive one; in this case it will be an energetic extension of arms up, but without ending up preventing that the action is executed and he/she offers him territorial advantage.
All the games were observed in a direct way and they were had a series of methodological orientations, as:
To conceive an observation protocol.
To train to the group of observers to the work in team in a dynamic way, in this case was eight, four controlling the carried out passes, two the defensive-offensive actions and one the interceptions of the passes. This allowed taking out the pertinent data in the games.
That the battery of tests to elaborate is a solution to improve the quality of execution of this important element in masculine of the category elite of the Cuban Basketball starting from being shown professionals the elements that compose it and to have obtained in the process of practical application to the players.
To specify the theoretical elements that sustain the importance of the control propioceptivo in the evaluation of the passes under conditions similar to the game in the Basketball.
To design the test that conform the battery of tests to evaluate the precision of the passes in situations similar to the game.
To determine the theoretical validity of the battery of tests for the evaluation of the control propioceptivo in the passes in situations similar to the game.
De La Paz, J. (2005). Basketball. The offensive. Havana: Editorial Deportes.
Mora, F. (2009). Minibaloncesto: Manual for the teaching and the learning. City of Havana: Editorial Deportes.
Morales, A. (1996). You prove psychological specific for the control of the development of the cognitive processes in swordsman. Doctoral thesis. University of the Sciences of the Physical Culture and the Sport. Cuba: Havana.
Ruiz, M. (2010) Battery of tests to evaluate the effectiveness of the shots of long and half distance in the Cuban Basketball. Doctoral thesis. Faculty of Physical Culture. Cuba: Matanzas.
Sainz de la Torre, N. (2011). Psycho pedagogy of the Physical Education and the school sport. Havana: Editorial Deportes.
Wissel, H. (2011). Basketball. to Learn how to Progress. 4th ed. Havana: Editorial Deportes.
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Digital · Año 20 · N° 210 | Buenos Aires,
Noviembre de 2015