Media and demonstrations in the
Mídia e as manifestações no país: interface com a Copa do Mundo de 2014
Los medios de comunicación y las protestas en Brasil: la interfaz con la Copa del Mundo 2014
Group Interdisciplinary Research in Sociology of Sport
University of São Paulo
Felipe Porcopio Silva
Marco Antonio Bettine de Almeida
This study seeks to bring some discussions on popular demonstrations in June 2013 in Brazil by the Brazilian media gaze. Newspaper reports of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro seeking to interpret the motivations and relations with the World Cup 2014 were analyzed.
Keywords: Popular demonstrations. Media. World Cup 2014.
Este estudo busca trazer algumas discussões sobre as manifestações populares em junho de 2013 no Brasil pelo olhar da mídia brasileira. Foram analisadas reportagens de jornais de São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro buscando interpretar as motivações e relações com a Copa do mundo de 2014.
Unitermos: Manifestações populares. Mídia. Copa do Mundo.
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The Free Pass responsible for organizing the movement manifests that gave rise to this popular revolt is defined on their website as well: The Free Pass Movement (MPL) is a Brazilian social movement to fight for a public transport actually outside the private sector. One of the main flags of the movement is migrating from private transport system to a public system, ensuring universal access through free pass to all layers of the population. Today, the MPL wants to deepen the debate on the right to come and go on urban mobility in cities and on a new transmission model for Brazil. (1)
From there the movement free pass organized some protests and events to discuss its central theme, the rate of public transport, and its reduction to zero tariffs in several cities.
On June 2, 2013 is announced in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro increased rates of public transport, this adjustment should have occurred in January, but was postponed. The next day some small groups have demonstrated.
The movement organizes Free Pass for June 6 first act against the fare increase in SP that met about two thousand people and had a lot of violence and confrontation with police, other demonstrations took place in Rio de Janeiro, Goiânia and Natal. (2)
The next day June 7 free pass Movement organized the second act against the fare increase in SP now mobilized about four thousand people, and again there is confrontation with police. (2)
Defaced, stoned and burned up - On June 11 the third act against raising tariffs summoned by the movement free pass which has about four thousand people again and the violence increases, "Bank and 85 buses are vandalized occurs. In all, nineteen protesters are arrested, ten of them for crimes without bail as conspiracy and property damage". (12)
On June 17 the movement free pass called back by social networks fifth act against the fare increase, that day has become a landmark for the demonstrations and the history of the country, as well as St. Paul hears protests in several other cities with the same magnitude of São Paulo, despite the organization maintain tariff rate many demonstrators carried placards and shouts of order with other claims.
That day the protests were mostly peaceful, largely due to the pressure that the population and the media did against abuse and confrontations occurring in other manifestos, except a few thugs who tried to agitate.
From that day the demonstrations took a much larger course and presented several guidelines. (11)
This work seeks to make a discussion about the recent events that mobilized the entire country, thus becoming a very important historical and political moment, identifying the precursors and raised tariffs on such events and their interface with the world cup 2014 which will be headquartered in Brazil.
Thus the objectives of this study are to analyze and interpret the recent demonstrations that mobilized the country and its reasons, understanding that we are about to host a mega event like the World Cup and these manifestations can and should re-occur during the event.
This study has historical and social character has a qualitative approach with observational explanatory literature and documents.
Popular demonstrations and World Cup
The demonstrations took an unimaginable proportion to the first staff was the repeal of the tariff increase of public transport, but with the mass protest other agendas were raised and it was noted, was a general revolt against the way the policy is developed and the performance of politicians in the country. (10)
Claims against investments in health, more money in education, cheap public transportation, an end to corruption, rejection of 37 Pec, social inequality, public spending and especially with the world cup were raised.
After all, in theory, the World Cup would lead to Brazil a surplus of 65 billions of dollars, approximately the economy. However, taking the experience of Pan-American (held in the country recently in 2007) and even the 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, there was a final budget much higher than expected, due to several factors, causing the government spend billions more to maintain the high level of work. This becomes alarming and should serve as a warning to the population, since it is observed an increase of over 3 billion in budget between the years 2011 and 2012. (3)
The month of June, when the Confederations Cup was held, was, as shown earlier, atypical across the country because of the waves of protests that began in Free Pass Movement.
Although there have been protests in that sense before, it can be said that such events may have contributed significantly to that part of the population perform protests against the World Cup, taking advantage of the exposure and the presence of foreigners in the Confederations Cup. (9)
Before the opening, for example, Veja magazine publishes: "Brazil wanted to enjoy the achievement of major sporting events which will host until 2016 to switch their development and economic strength. But on the first day of the tournament that starts this sequence, visitors could witness closely the moment of upheaval facing the country. Shortly before noon on Saturday, in the countdown to the opening of the Confederations Cup, a group of about 500 protesters took part in the Monumental Axis and advanced towards the National Stadium in Brasilia, the stage of the match between Brazil and Japan, the debut of the tournament. The demonstration began peacefully and according to the participants, aimed to claim a more rigorous fight against corruption and more investment in health and education. The extended range before the group had the words: "World Cup for whom? The name of one of the movements involved in the protest". (4)
Counter point inside the stadiums the climate showed a lot of support, with fans singing the national anthem with the team before games.
The climate of protests against spending and the consequences of the Cup lasted the whole tournament, along with other events with other agendas. In the final of the Confederations Cup, which Brazil would play against the current world champions, Spain, there were more protests in Rio de Janeiro. Hours before the game, thousands of people gathered in front of the Maracana to demonstrate dissatisfaction as posting See:
"The stage of the grand final of the Confederations Cup on Sunday between Brazil and Spain, was also the main highlight of two protests held in the North Zone of Rio de Janeiro. In the first act, the demonstrators walked for about two hours peacefully, mainly calling for the end of the concession to the private sector Maracana, which will also host matches of the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics. If the Maraca privatize Rio will stop", they shouted, and in an adaptation of the first sentence of the movement, which called for reduction of bus fare.
Among the claims were still the order of removals of residents in areas that receive works according to the two major events. A letter to each of the points would be read in front of the stadium, but a police barrier had closed all accesses half hour earlier than had been disclosed by the city. When faced with armed troops, protesters sat on the floor in front of the police and held a minute's silence as a sign of mourning for the victims of the operation in the Complexo da Mare, who left ten deaths on Tuesday. "The Tide is, resists the tide, sang." (5)
Despite the decrease in the pace and intensity of demonstrations in the country after the end of the Confederations Cup, it is natural that the authorities and the population itself wait for more protests in the weeks before the start of the World Cup and during its realization. Former player and current deputy Romario exposes the sentiment of much of the population to say that the tournament will be "the biggest theft in history ". (6)
Although the vast majority of people present at demonstrations, regardless of tariff or region of the country, were peaceful, one can observe regrettable and shocking scenes of violence, and demonstrators clash with police leaving several people injured.
Moreover, many establishments were destroyed, which does not show a good image to the world and to the possible sponsors who wish to invest in the country with the World Cup.
Such acts of violence frightened not only the population but also FIFA and the federal government, as the Leaf says:
"During the Confederations Cup, held in June in six cities, the demonstrations frightened FIFA and the federal government.
"The police ensured the safety of all", said Aldo Rebelo, Minister of Sports. (7)
Because of this, many people worry about possible clashes between protesters and police during the World Cup and can hurt innocent people and even interfere with the smooth running of the tournament.
To prevent that government officials for the safety of people and the World Cup organizers say they will not tolerate violent behavior by the protesters. The Globe publishes the speech of the Secretary of Homeland Security for Major Events, in which he says has the job of ensuring the smooth running of the tournament and possible manifestations, but we reprove acts of violence and vandalism. (8)
Movimento Passe Livre. Disponível em http://www.mpl.org.br/?q=node/1. Acessado em 19/07/2013.
Veja. Disponível em http://veja.abril.com.br/cronologia/protestos-no-brasil/index.html. Acessado em 19/07/2013.
SAMPAIO, P. A. C.; SILVA, J. V. P.; BAHIA, C. S. Investimento em infraestrutura do Mundial FIFA 2014: “Quem ganha?” e “Quem paga a fatura?”. Motrivivência, ano XXIV, nº 39, p. 76-91, dez./2012.
VEJA. Antes de abertura, protesto chega aos arredores do estádio. Disponível em: http://veja.abril.com.br/noticia/esporte/antes-da-abertura-protesto-chega-aos-arredores-do-estadio Acesso em: 10 de outubro de 2013.
VEJA. Manifestação pacífica pede o fim da concessão do Maracanã. Disponível em: http://veja.abril.com.br/noticia/brasil/manifestacao-pacifica-pede-fim-da-concessao-do-maracana Acesso em: 10 de outubro de 2013
O GLOBO. Romario diz que Copa de 2014 será o maior roubo da história. Disponível em: http://oglobo.globo.com/esportes/romario-diz-que-copa-de-2014-sera-maior-roubo-da-historia-4345965 Acesso em: 12 de outubro de 2013.
FOLHA. FIFA teme protestos na Copa do Mundo. Disponível em: http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/esporte/folhanacopa/2013/08/1328877-fifa-teme-protestos-na-copa-do-mundo.shtml Acesso em: 14 de outubro de 2013.
O Globo. Disponível em http://oglobo.globo.com/infograficos/cronologia-protestos-onibus/. Acessado em 19/07/2013.
Veja. Disponível em http://veja.abril.com.br/noticia/brasil/acompanhe-o-quinto-protesto-contra-o-reajuste-de-tarifas. Acessado em 19/07/2013.
UOL. Disponível em http://noticias.uol.com.br/cotidiano/ultimas-noticias/2013/06/17/onda-de-protestos-cresce-e-leva-mais-de-220-mil-brasileiros-as-ruas-de-norte-a-sul-do-pais.htm. Acessado em 19/07/2013.
FGV / Ernst & Young. Brasil sustentável: Impactos Socioeconômicos da Copa do Mundo 2014. Disponível em: http://fgvprojetos.fgv.br/sites/fgvprojetos.fgv.br/files/BRASIL%20SUSTENTAVEL_%20ERNST%20YOUNG.pdf Acesso em: 14 maio 2012.
R7. Grandes protestos voltarão em 2014, diz fundador do Mídia Ninja. Disponível em: http://noticias.r7.com/cidades/grandes-protestos-voltarao-em-2014-diz-fundador-do-midia-ninja-14102013 Acesso em: 14 de outubro de 2013.
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Digital · Año 18 · N° 189 | Buenos Aires,
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