Volleyball and playfulness: beyond sport spectacularization
El voleibol y el juego: más allá de la espectacularización del deporte
Voleibol e ludicidade: além da espetacularização do esporte
*Acadêmicos do Curso de Licenciatura em Educação Física
da Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB)
**Doutorando em Educação pela Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA). Docente
do Curso de Educação Física da Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB)
Carlos Alencar Souza Alves Junior*
Poliana Freitas Brito*
Ramon Missias Moreira**
Volleyball is on the rise in Brazil and worldwide, being transmitted to the various sectors of society, coming to the school, which for many years was conceived as a space for discovery of new athletes. In this perspective, the aim of this study was to develop a literature review on the relationship between volleyball and playfulness in the context of physical education, and the influence of the media in the construction of this knowledge. This is a descriptive and qualitative, whose method was the technique literature review. A literature search was through books and search for articles in electronic databases of SciELO and Periodic Physical Education, published between 2000 and 2013. For data analysis, we used thematic content analysis. The modality volleyball influences, as well as contextualized in students' skills, stimulating biological, cognitive and motor, resulting in a full training, to enable better learning, achieved through socialization and playfulness applied. The playfulness present in the actions sports is one of the aspects that need consideration, whether in the structuring and planning of learning activities either at the time of deployment. Through this study we analyze carefully the reflections that the authors did in their respective texts, discussing how volleyball is being practiced in the school, as the media exerts its influence in the context of school and volleyball as we advance in knowledge construction using the features offered by the playfulness.
Keywords: School. Education. Volleyball. Playfulness. Physical Education.
O voleibol encontra-se em ascensão no Brasil e no mundo, sendo transmitido aos diversos setores da sociedade, chegando ao âmbito escolar, que durante muitos anos foi concebido como espaço de descoberta de novos atletas. Nessa perspectiva, o objetivo desse estudo foi desenvolver uma revisão de literatura sobre as relações entre o voleibol e a ludicidade no contexto da Educação Física Escolar, e a influência da mídia no processo de construção desse conhecimento. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo e qualitativo, cujo método proposto foi à técnica de revisão de literatura. A pesquisa bibliográfica se deu através de livros e busca de artigos na base de dados eletrônica da SciELO e Periódicos da Educação Física, publicados no período entre 2000 e 2013. Para análise dos dados, utilizamos a análise temática de conteúdo. A modalidade voleibol influencia, quando bem contextualizada, nas habilidades dos alunos, estimulando o desenvolvimento biológico, cognitivo e motor, resultando numa formação integral, ao possibilitar um melhor aprendizado, conseguido através da socialização e da ludicidade aplicada. A ludicidade presente nas ações esportivas é um dos aspectos que necessitam de consideração, quer seja na estruturação e planejamento das atividades de ensino quer seja no momento de sua implantação. Através desse estudo analisamos criteriosamente as reflexões que os autores fizeram em seus respectivos textos, discutindo sobre como o voleibol está sendo praticado na escola, como a mídia exerce sua influência no contexto do voleibol escolar e como podemos avançar na construção do conhecimento utilizando-se dos recursos oferecidos pela ludicidade.
Unitermos: Escola. Educação. Voleibol. Ludicidade. Educação Física.
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Volleyball spread rapidly due to its high content recreational, reaching prominence in the school through the large media coverage. The dream of becoming a volleyball player comes from the excellent and fast way to earn capital, inculcating in students the need to improve themselves through income.
This method consists in an organized manner of tension of a group of fleeing compartments sports experts, inviting us to reflect more deeply on one of the essential phenomena of our civilization: the sport (ELIAS e DUNNING, 1992).
Therefore, it is essential that the physical education teacher assists students beyond income and exacerbated Ghana to win at any cost, because if he becomes a player in the future, know to act collectively, respecting the limitations of teammates. Teaching students to move is a big responsibility, because there are several ways of working culture of body movement by which denote more fun, which through playful game, awakens in students happy to undertake particular sports activity (BARROSO e DARIDO, 2010).
Volleyball undoubtedly presents itself as a sport essential to free movement, the various ways to express a gesture engine; creating sports child, and bureaucratic rules, being of paramount importance in the physical and social education of students, repressing violent attitudes to arouse sympathy. Thus, one should emphasize both the technical foundations and sports training and simultaneously provide reflection of pedagogy used in school work (RODRIGUES E SOUZA, 2007).
The good results of this type grow gradually and with excellent achievements. Every Olympics, the content of volleyball at the heart of fans increases, the number of supporters progressing. The media contributes actively in the process, releasing the will to practice this sport. The Physical Education in Brazil, had since its beginning their sports practice and associated educational discipline, team spirit, control, self plus obedience to technical and judges. This influence is arising from military sources, strongly driven by discipline, character building and morality, using gymnastics and sport as a means to control individuals, and in the case of men, masculinity training (LUCERO, 2006).
Avoid high performance sports in school adds up strenuous and tiring, because students are imbued with the remnants military, show yourself strong, athletic and winners. Deconstruct this concept requires time and above all commitment to the formation of new citizens, to show the playful as a strong alternative to go beyond the spectacle of the sport.
Based on the assumptions described above, this study consisted in developing a literature review on the relationship between volleyball and playfulness in the context of physical education, and the influence of the media in the construction of this knowledge.
The present study deals with a qualitative, analytical and descriptive (MINAYO; DESLANDES; GOMES, 2012). To enable the development of scientific research, there was an integrative review of the literature, which consisted of the construction of a literature analysis, contributing to discussion and reflection on the development of new studies (SOUZA; SILVA; CARVALHO, 2010).
Initially, the research was conducted and scientific refinement systematically at SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) and Regular Physical Education, and the use of books. The inclusion criteria for this study were: original articles and review of literature published between 2000 and 2013 in national journals, in Portuguese and English with full text. In this search, we selected articles that have direct relationship with the object of study of this research.
For the analysis of the corpus used the technique of content analysis (BARDIN, 2011), which is organized in three steps to follow: Pre-analysis, material exploration and data processing, interpretation and inference.
Any sports feature competitiveness as one of the main characteristics, this fact is directed to sports performance. The victory of one means the defeat of many, sometimes thousands. Losers do not serve for the dissemination of media being spurned by the spectacle. The years of dedication to the sport are not remembered, unless the title is of the winner. Is the pressure of performance and winning and winning only. Racing is good when you win, otherwise the work is inevitable oblivion.
The principles of the sport, which called for competition, are not healthy. Harms not only the athlete, but also his coach, socially seen as unable to teach the basics to its receptor and practical. Competition and competition, entails overcoming logo/exploitation of man by man, soon assumes winners (always a minority) and losers (most always) right also implies social injustice and human (TAFFAREL; MORSCHBACKER, 2013).
The yield Volleyball arose after it is inserted in the Olympics (1964) and nationally, after victories in the Olympics in 1984, 1992, 2004 and 2008 in the male, the female. This sport started to be taken to the spectacle by changes in their rules, allowing the reduction of the time of the games to focus on television broadcasts, called the tie-break, created by the FIVB Foundation (International Volleyball Federation) in 1988 (VIEIRA, 2007).
The delay of game bored the audience, which had no motivation to watch it. After the changes significantly alter the configuration of volleyball, there was a reliable spectacle, reaching the stigma of popular dictating another fad to be worshiped. Reports short, easy to understand, give the audience a feeling of pleasantness to watch. Among the results of this popularity, are: the selection of volleyball shirts sold, more commercials aired by different media and different sponsors, realizing a large profit with spectacle of sports (MEZZAROBA; PIRES, 2011).
There is in our society, which is called factory sporting talents, improvement of future athletes and demand the same place in all spheres of society, affecting mainly the school environment. Mediation conducted by the television camera built a new type of consumption for the general public: the sport spectacle. Fanaticism towards sports attaches itself to the media appeal printed or digital television, which gives so strong bureaucratic rules to be followed to stardom, mostly pertain to the discipline and effort. The latter being practiced until the forces actually exhausting (BETTI, 2010).
Alienation television specifically can be seen in detail, but individuals reveal themselves as unaware of the situation itself deceived by the sporty appeal of income who do not understand his imprisonment. In a football game broadcast on television the replay feature is a way to inveigling because the repeat bid, repeated also how to act to achieve such a feat.
Other examples refer to the advertisements, which make use of poor boys and blacks as a result of sport, achieved success, being hero, and not least have stratospheric salaries into their bank accounts. Introducing, in such a way, the key manipulation : "If you want to be an idol of the sport, have to train a lot" (BATISTA; BETTI, 2005; BETTI; CAMILO, 2010).
The massive training refers to the differential of the athlete as this with a knowledgeable technical rules and being able to enjoy the maximum possible capacity of the athlete, it is possible, thus, climb the podium and dreamed figures with which it relates. The school presents itself as an inexhaustible source of sporting talent, many coaches run up to them to identify students athletic potential. The school premises are stages of competitions and contests, which are part of the most exciting school, regardless of the methodology or program to valorize or not (LUCERO, 2006).
Emotions can be seen as another requirement of the volleyball income equally to other sports spectacle, which interfere with people's emotions. Adrenaline or tension of a match play on feelings, whether good or bad they are precepts for continued spectacle (JUNIOR SILVEIRA, 2010).
When you witness the selection that cheered take a title, for example, there is a frenzy of sensations, a true catharsis of feelings. Many of these are likely to not only reinvigorate the body and mind, providing an intense sensation of pleasure. The yield on the part of any sport has this capability. The growing tension and excitement communicate, however, the players and so on, until the voltage reaches a point where only one can withstand and contain (ELIAS; DUNNING, 1992).
Modern society, with its competitive devices, integrates the different social classes, an intense dispute, and this aspect just affecting the sporting arena, playing in various sports. To succeed in life, you need to dream, or rather, to succeed in life, you need to destroy the dreams of others, because there are no vacancies for all. The unfair competition makes us self-absorbed with our own income, since this forms the basis of the company's profits. We are athletes all the time, however, the sport is not a direct but indirect competition, where the motto refers to succeed and win.
The practice of volleyball in school and playfulness
The sport is a specificity inherent in physical education classes, this should be the time of the military government in which, for restricted interest of the state the sport was virtually the exclusive content of the discipline. "In the model militaristic goals of physical education in school were linked to the formation of a generation capable of supporting the fight, to fight, to serve in the war, so it was important to select individuals "perfect" physically delete the disabled, contributing for maximizing the strength and power of the population" (COLETIVO DE AUTORES, 1992; RODRIGUES; SOUZA, 2007).
The sport can not be overlooked in school. In the case where volleyball is a
team sport is a great option to be worked in the school, however, must be
developed changes in the rules thereof to instill a playful nature in which
certainly cover a greater number of students. Thus, students considered
"less - skilled " did not feel constrained from participating in
physical education classes which, the correct course would be to create the
conditions so that students obtain autonomy in relation to physical activity.
Although the sport - performance bring both physical and psychological implications for individuals, it is considered a sociocultural phenomenon. Because the teacher can work with the biases involving concepts and procedures related to sports performance in the school environment such as discussing the high level of the sport and health, substance misuse and use of anabolic steroids to enhance results. Bringing this way, students to controversial issues with social and cultural characteristics (CARVALHO, 2011).
The modern sports originated in the nineteenth century, following the development of capitalist society. The games have changed until they reach the sport spectacle turning into a consumer society. This means that the sport of auto performance acts as a factory to produce athletes at any cost, often depriving them of their own thoughts becoming alienated beings (KORSAKAS, 2002).
Mesquita (2005) brings a pedagogical proposal for teaching volleyball at school, where signaling is primarily for the use of the game, playing it is a fundamental tool for learning, due to factors such as motivation and pleasure it provides. However she claims that the game held at initiation should not be the formal 6 x 6 (default), because the sequence of play is stopped due to the difficulty of maintaining the high ball. The author makes some recommendations to foster the teaching of volleyball in school:
During a round the optimal number of students is at most 4 x 4 therefore allows greater contact with the ball;
Reduce the size of the block to get the ball in the air longer.
Thus, Garganta (2007), recommends simplifying the rules of team sports games,
adapting them to the anthropometric and physiological needs of the students,
changes such as: reduction of practitioners, smaller court with dimensions and
others are facilitators of game actions, providing a teaching and successful
Volleyball adapted to the school will promote interaction between learning mode with specific gestures of popular games and activities, making the learning more meaningful and there is an interaction between the games that students are familiar with the introduction of new moves. With this, find pleasure and motivation in education classes, therefore, when considering the specific activities it wished to continue taking pleasure in practicing them. Faria and colleagues (2010) state that recreational activities provide satisfaction in the sense of freedom and creativity, providing innovative teaching practices.
The modality influences volleyball, when well practiced in the skills of students, encouraging cognitive, motor, collective, resulting in greater integration and enabling students to better learning, achieved through socialization through dialogue.
The remnants of a Physical Education ruled in hygienism and income in the years dictatorial military and even today are linked to the area, judged by the "know-how". With the advancement of the 80s, and new pedagogical debates, the yield became obsolete, causing new educational structures, based on the student's daily life and playfulness.
It turned out that the school does not only athletes, but also citizens who will produce the Physical Education, rethink it, equipping it to enjoy games, sports for the benefit of the critical exercise of citizenship and improving quality of life (MEZZAROBA; PIRES, 2011; OLIVEIRA, 2011).
The school volleyball should not surrender to spectacle, as this entails individualism perennial front of a social climbing, serving exclusively the winners while the losers are relegated said those responsible sport spectacle, or the media (VLASTUIN, 2010).
This sport can not be seen only as a product of the commodification of the spectacle, even if he has introduced in society and in schools, specifically in physical education classes four problems, which limit the teaching recreational volleyball.
Paes (2002) presents such obstacles in physical education classes: 1- Practice sportivizated by performing movements in many sports; 2- Practice repetitive technicalities; 3- Fragmentation of content related to the lack of organization; 4- early specialization, determined by achieving results in a short period where student specializing in certain movements, rather than a diversification of motor actions. All this happens, of course, without reflection, forming merely reproduce the spectacle.
It takes a transformation didactic-pedagogic sports to avoid possible perfection of movements, proposing a reflection on pedagogical work, motivating students to participate in lessons. The sport has a yield increasingly competitive and serious in finding triumphs. Both, of course, made sure the power of playfulness to avoid perfection in search of victories, new propositions reflecting on teaching (LUCENA, 2004; COSTA, 2013).
The student participation will be effective from the time the teacher is interested in the reality of them favoring their previous knowledge, transforming the school environment in a fun, as it pertains to learning. But to reach this feat, the use of progressive proposals or participatory, infers a driving force of students, where playfulness is present in the stimulation of pleasure in studying. The playfulness present in the actions sports is one of the aspects that need consideration, whether in the structuring and planning of learning activities either at the time of its implementation (MARANTE, 2006; SOUZA 2010).
The playfulness denotes pleasure in performing a particular activity. However to be the playful, deprive themselves of rules in sports is crucial. For with the freedom to act, working up the collective as well as new forms of organization will emerge, boosting not only creativity, but also solidarity provided dialog towards a conclusion. The ludic bring problems to be solved by the students, but with new possibilities for consensus, than the mere reproduction of the show. Therefore, an athlete will be formed this conception aware that alienates media and sport dignifies man, through his effort and not just the victory.
The leisure represents another aspect of playfulness, to achieve pleasure, playing sports, not worshiping the yield by individualism and imprisonment of alienation media, but goes back to the simple fact feel good. In line with Elias and Dunning (1992), leisure may still be a freely chosen occupation and unpaid, chosen primarily because it is nice for yourself.
Leisure is considered healthy. If not healthy, undoubtedly it is not leisure. The sensations beneficial to social life bind to leisure when practiced with detachment of victories and incentives aimed at favoring individualism. At school, leisure happens when you do not have institutionalized rules and there was no definition of motor and cognitive aspect. Leisure is pure fun, it's pure playfulness. Thus, the relationship between leisure and non- leisure becomes a balance between floating voltages. The function of leisure, if we may so express, not to release tensions compensatory and yes, restore tensions pleasant, able to recover and integrate all walks of life (GEBARA, 2005).
The teacher has to provide the student a range of elements essential to their formation, breaking the monotony of perfection motor helps to demystify the inferiority of the less skilled, as losers and failures, design disseminated by the media. The playfulness, a major factor that has teaching entails the reduction of prejudice and gender inequality (RODRIGUES; SOUZA, 2007). The Physical Education teacher today have difficulties in materials needed to class, but for this there is the playful, because there are several forms of the subjects being discussed.
The school aims at the integral formation of the students, then teachers must have knowledge of what is working in the classroom, differentiating between the different types of games. Work effectively with playfulness is necessary because sociability provides students with fundamental social life, teaching them values and global training.
Therefore, the split between spectacle and sport will be possible only when teachers and society they hold the awareness that we are alienated all the time, and recognize themselves, to intervene in new pedagogical reconstruction, with playfulness in volleyball.
The literature review allowed carefully analyze the reflections which, the authors did in their respective texts, discussing how volleyball is being practiced in school, often wrongly, in which the sport is not treated as a means to expand training of students, but rather is seen as unique content of PE lessons, playing gestures motors without consideration of the motion.
With the strategies exposed, using the theoretical foundations of this study is to create opportunities for physical education teachers expand knowledge and the quality of teaching and learning, making lessons more enjoyable. Inserting adaptations in sport volleyball to practice in the school environment.
Coming to a close this work, we emphasize the "power" which the media has on the sport and the need to introduce discussions about media influence in the educational field, in an attempt to intervene in sporting spectacle.
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