Dialectics and social inclusion in Physical Education

Dialéctica e inclusión social en Educación Física


*Professor Doutor do Curso de Educação Física e História

do Centro Universitário para o Desenvolvimento do Alto Vale do Itajaí, UNIDAVI

Professor do Curso de Educação Física da Universidade Regional de Blumenau, FURB

**Professora de Educação Física formada no Centro Universitário

para o Desenvolvimento do Alto Vale do Itajaí, UNIDAVI

***Professor do Curso de Educação Física da Universidade Regional de Blumenau, FURB

****Professora de Educação Física. Mestranda do Mestranda do Programa

de Pós Graduação em Educação da Universidade Regional de Blumenau, FURB


Eduardo Cartier*


Isabel Depiné**


Vitor Giatte Angarten***


Camila da Cunha Nunes****







          Think Physical Education in the context of inequality, in the binomial inclusion / exclusion is to highlight the need to rethink their means in a context that goes beyond the scope of the biological model hygienist, militaristic, Competitive, recreationist that characterized throughout history their practice. Therefore, this study aims to develop a reflection that allows the consideration of social integration within the Physical Education, considering the dialectical perspective as the core element within a meaningful praxis.

          Keywords: Physical Education. Social inclusion. Dialectic.


EFDeportes.com, Revista Digital. Buenos Aires, Año 16, Nº 162, Noviembre de 2011. http://www.efdeportes.com/

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Trails and skiing

    There are several ways of understanding physical education, and therewith there are several ways to develop it. Its legitimacy as an area of ​​knowledge finds grants in many areas and disciplines.

    Its scope is such that several factors, perspectives and theoretical concepts raise an extensive field of research that is the subject of research to several theoretical of category. Think of it in the context of inequality, the binomial inclusion / exclusion is to emphasize the need to rethink the Physical Education and its possibilities in a context that goes beyond the scope of the biological model hygienist, militaristic, competitive, recreationist that characterized along the history their pedagogical practice.

    We know that the discussion of inclusive education is fairly crude, especially with regard to the proposal of consider different possibilities to understand the physical education in an expanded perspective, inter-and multidisciplinary.

    The discourse of inclusive education assumes that the transfer of knowledge and social equity, we can think of processes developed from an ideological perspective focused on ideas and concepts unilateral.

    In the scope of Physical Education Landim (2003) ensures that a proposal for the Physical Education should respect human diversity in any of its expressions: gender, biotype, color, race, disability, ethnicity, sexuality, and accepting and electing individual differences as a factor cultural enrichment.

    The inequality is established throughout history, in a view supported in the modes of capitalist production, in a process of integration and disintegration in which the basic element of the condition of alienation of the human being as an employee and, consequently, the idea of ​​perpetuation the unequal relationship, occurred from the lack of knowledge of the class struggle and the component driver of changing conditions and social transformations - the fragmentation of knowledge.

    Boaventura Santos (2005) indicates that new players are needed, elaborating criticism and complaints from other forms of oppression that affect not only the ways of working and production, however, the way we live, as it rests and covers society as a whole.

    Inclusion for Bourdieu (2001) should equip people with the objective mechanisms of appropriation of cultural and social capital, thus reducing the monopoly of access to institutions and rules of social precedence practiced by the ruling classes. The appropriation of cultural and social capital would be, specifically, access to public equity capital, the technological knowledge, the skills required in social life.

    We can say from Telles (1992) do not recognize the other as a subject of interest, aspirations and valid reasons, means a form of sociability that is not completed, as governed by an approach based on cancellation of the other as identity.

    From the perspective of Vygotsky (1997), the biggest loss of the segregation of disabled people is social, i.e., according to their socio-genetic theory, the child is weak in regard to the importance of trade interpsychological because the conditions of derive psychic development of the quality of social exchange which, in turn, are directly involved in the decision whether to include teaching individuals with disabilities in regular schools.

    Beyer (2006) asserts that the special schools at the intersection with the proposal of the inclusive school, special schools are being designed to segregate schools. A look at the history of special schools can teach us that this idea, in part, represents a bias, or at least one mistake. This misconception brings several considerations, particularly in the development of the individual.

    The inclusion of disabled people in sports is part of the recent history of Physical Education. We can observe that in the late 1980s, the disabled, obese and low motor performance were prevented from joining in undergraduate courses in Physical Education, because of the physical fitness test that was conducted as part of the vestibular. Only in the 90's that the physical fitness test was abolished in the selection process.

    Facts such as these severely influenced the development of physical education in their educational practices; after all, it was assumed stances hitherto discriminatory, since the work was directed to the most qualified and talented.

    The Physical Education in a dialectical view allows that understanding to the extent that it has in its characteristic roots and alternative possibility to transcend, empower and create autonomy for those involved, especially sustained an inclusive perspective on embodiment, since they involved subjects who are building their own chances of overcoming.

    Think this leaves clues to a treadmill for a significant practice in which being inclusive and cooperative resignifies pre-established concepts in physical education and in turn society against exclusionary practices of a technical nature, so mechanistic.

    Certainly provide significant practical components of socialization and behavior relevant to a social life relevant, legitimate and indeed collective.

    For Habermas (1989) is the world of life is therefore the context of the situation and at the same time, he gives us the resources to the processes of interpretation with which the participants seek communication supply the lack of mutual understanding that has emerged action in every situation.

    From this contextualization in this study developed a reflection that allows the consideration of social integration within the Physical Education, considering the dialectical perspective as the core element within a meaningful praxis.

The problem of social inequality

    The problem of social inequality is contained in various conditions and social conventions that determine the entire process relational and continuous live since the beginning of society. The demand for equal conditions of access to information, goods and resources is possible only to the extent of complaints that certain evidence and excluding this process.

    The capitalist system and the elements that compose it possible contradictions in the way of effective development of relationships and life. To the extent that produces the conditions of access to wealth, that meets the basic needs of living and production of relative and absolute surplus value, establishes the (un) control of the same wealth, ultimately handles the same access to this wealth.

    In the context of social equity, this system that visualizes the process of social equality, provide conditions for access to wealth, produces dramatically when they contradict the condition prevents practical autonomy with industrial monopolies and corporations that determine the needs of human beings, i.e., the need and dependence develops at the highest level of control freedom. In this way, then how to develop practical autonomy and operationalize social equity?

    The inclusion becomes viable only when, through participation in collective action, the excluded are able to recover their dignity and can, in addition to employment and income, access to decent housing, cultural facilities and social services like education and health among other dimensions (RATTNER, 2002).

    In times of great cultural diversity, social inequality, economic uncertainty and political idiosyncrasies, we identified a very rich scenario of coexistence promising - even if it still perpetuates the designs of the capitalist system in its contradiction does not seem to be room for development and sustainability - in terms understand the other possibilities.

    The human consciousness is part of the forces that leverage the possibilities of understanding other living spaces that pervade the scope of estrangement and regulatory oversight that regulates our conduct in society. Cause small ruptures in this scenario, it seems, in our view, one possible way of course hard for the pursuit of freedom in all dimensions, democracy - in fact - and practical autonomy.

    In this case the inclusion - even in its contradiction - it is possible to seek solutions to this condition and humanizing minimally altruistic.

    For Goergen (2001) autonomy can not be understood as an interior space isolated from the cultural circumstances, since no identity can be designed or constructed independently of the public spaces in which are always already present certain concepts such as equality and altruism.

    The circumstances of domination, power and unilateral exploitation of the resources are one of the determinations that consolidate the primacy of exclusion of those who do not have access to the material conditions of human right conditions, and this is intrinsically related to modes of perception of life, which excels in the placement of "each one in its place"

    Guattari (2005) indicates that we must once again rely on the story, because we run the risk of no longer having human history if mankind does not reassert itself radically. By all means possible, it is to combine the entropic growth of dominant subjectivity.

    The phenomenon of social inclusion has been used and played with multiple meanings. Among them, the understanding of all students should be integrated into the normal education and regular education.

    Regardless of the concepts and meanings realizes the need to respect differences in order to ensure the full development of each individual, since this has huge potential to be exploited.

    Inevitably we can not accept the exclusion as something normal, that is, the naturalization process. After the collective social life and allow the free transit of differences, be they biological, economic, or relational.

    And this process conflicted and contradictory as socially constructed the most appropriate ways of living together.

    It seems fair to say that this process of building relationships, the pursuit of a collective identity permeates the field of coexistence in all spheres of development that is socially accepted. With this, the exclusion and inequality are gaining space in that advance the relational field permeated by surpassing and subservience.

    Something quite possible observation within the structures of classes, the material conditions of living and economic dependence that allow direct influence on daily life and in docility and training bodies to a servile society.

    The perpetuation of paradigms, including social stereotypes erasing the possibility of recognition of cultural diversity, the different ways of thinking about the other, society and nature, i.e., the world lived by us.

    In the context of diversity and recognizing the other as different is inevitably conditioned the expression of the human condition of social belonging, even if it is ignored as part of the context of our experience of reality, although there is the disregard and lack of available to stakeholders.

    The cultivation of an empirical analytical design - Gamboa (2007) - in education and ways of producing science has made positions and postures that favor the exclusion of other possibilities for thinking about knowledge, and in turn, other forms of thinking the world. With this, intolerance and resistance manifest themselves as barriers to social inclusion process.

    Bringing - albeit very superficial - this turned up a small position in the light of this interpretation of neoliberalism, the second Foladori (2001), this is not responsible for their own failures, since its proposition as ideal model of society, the abstract nature, allows you to always acknowledge the existence of a culpable state spending as existing in reality.

    In this sense, the meritocratic value seems to be systematically contributing to these premises become naturalized and commonly contextualized, including the sphere of education policies that seem to enhance the competitiveness at any cost rather than the identification and consideration of other knowledge.

    Exclusion - multidimensional phenomenon - permeates the production of the excluded, in fact it is itself socially produced a product that strengthens and conditions need to be in a state of lasting supremacy.

    Socially produced in this condition, the relation is in a collective space where there is the need to respect other's space for everyone to share as a protagonist of this collective participation. With this, the participation and commitment become critical components for a diverse and fair relationship.

    For Freire (1979) the first condition for an individual can take an act is committed in being able to act and reflect on what it takes to be able to, being in the world, to know it, and it is exactly this ability to act and operate, to transform reality in accordance with objectives proposed by the human being, which is associated with its ability to reflect, that makes a being of praxis.

Dialectics approaches to inequality

    The dialectic perspective allows an approximation of the empirical reality and the need for transformation of ways of conceiving the relationship with others and with society.

    In a more distant view, the dialectic can be understood as the art of establishing dialogue, in which there was a need for processes like the other dialogues.

    Frigotto (1989) states that the dialectic is located on the idea of ​​reality and socially produced conception of history, in which the transformation and development of phenomena establish so conflicting and contradictory.

    The dialectic can be understood - albeit in quite shallow - from various historical moments and conceptual, didactically elected four times, namely the dialectic as a method of division, seen by Plato, the dialectic as logic of probability, this in Aristotle, the view from a dialectical logic, according to Kant, the dialectic as a synthesis of opposites and the unity of opposites, and in the formulation of Hegel / Marx's main contribution.

    For Marx and Engels (1993) dialectics is the study of contradiction in the very essence of things, we find the second Konder (2008), the concern to defend the character of the materialist dialectic, since they wanted to avoid the realization that the dialectic human history had nothing to do with nature, and developed laws that ensured that such a connotation, namely: the law of the interpenetration of opposites, the negation of the negation law and the law of passing of quantity into quality and vice versa.

    The association of materialistic idea of ​​Feuerbach and idealism present in the works of Hegel to Marx and Engels will allow a concrete elaboration of the idea of ​​dialectical materialism, the dialectical process that emerges from the solid, i.e., the empirical reality.

    The procedure means while dialectical thinking in contradiction once experienced in reality. It is a contradiction against the latter. Such an understanding concerning the dialectic, however, removed in line with Hegel. His movement does not tend to the identity of the difference of each object in relation to his concept, before she puts the same suspect (ADORNO, 2009).

    In this sense, it is possible to see the character of the whole conception of reality as experienced in the works of Marx and Engels on the dialectic. With these settings a priori, there is a need to understand the space of relational manner, or lived.

    With a positioning of the interaction, relationship and living spaces are politically constructed, we understand, the light of thought Demo (1987) that is the political space of human action, where it forms and shapes itself to the circumstances objective that surround it.

    In the context of knowledge and wisdom, Chelikani (1999) assumes that scientific knowledge aims to advance understanding of human beings in interaction with the environment, without having the predetermined goal of confirming a pre-established truth, thus contributes greatly to the comfort human in the material.

    The idea of ​​social inclusion, is only viable in this sense, as we realize that there is diversity in unity of opposites, and especially that there are distinct possibilities in the ways of thinking, design and operational life. Recognize how different or another seems arduous, complex and perhaps utopian in times of need for technology integration at any cost.

    To Demo (1987) the technological domain means the amazing progress in this pathway, through which the human being requires nature, making it increasingly his creatures.

    In times of rampant technological, restore the condition of human being human seems urgent need due to the livelihood of our condition of individual socially produced.

Final considerations

    Understand the other as different is perhaps one of the greatest difficulties we have as human beings, as we do not respect different opinions and interests that is, there is a pressing need to understand the intentions of others.

    Physical Education in a reflective and significant approach can serve as an opportunity for social inclusion, inasmuch as, such a perspective involves the understanding of diversity, as we need to consider the real needs of people, especially those marginalized and socially vulnerable groups.

    Resorting to the Marxist position evidenced in the words of Andery Serious and Pires (2000) to end this essay seem fair, necessary and recurrent, in that it shows that the Marxist materialist conception carries at its base a conception of nature and the relationship with human being with in that nature. The human being is part of nature, but not identical with it. This is a natural because it was created by nature itself, because he depends on the nature, of its transformation to survive. On the other hand, is not identical with nature, apart from nature, since nature uses this consciously transforming it according to their needs, and this process is to be human.

    Developing the perspective of the possibilities of integration or inclusion we can see from the initial construction of this study, social exclusion manifests itself greatly in the ways of conceiving the phenomena, in which permeate all relations conceptions of epistemological and ontological nature.

    Disarticulation between the different mechanisms and social spheres allow segregation in which some segments are established marginalized and not enjoying their full rights as citizens fully legitimized by the civilization of society throughout history. There is pressing need for the recognition of differences, be they in any social sphere.


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