Physical Education and human development: skills in social scene
Educación Física y el desarrollo humano: las habilidades en el escenario social
*Professor Doutor do Curso de Educação Física e História do Centro Universitário
para o Desenvolvimento do Alto Vale do Itajaí – UNIDAVI. Professor do Curso
de Educação Física da Universidade Regional de Blumenau – FURB
**Professora de Educação Física Rede Municipal de Ensino de Blumenau
Especialista em Residência Saúde da Família
***Professora de Educação Física. Mestranda do Programa de Pós-graduação em Educação
da Universidade Regional de Blumenau – FURB. Graduada em Educação Física – FURB
Camila da Cunha Nunes***
The changes that arise during the development affect human social interaction, emotional, behavioral, physiological and cognitive at all stages of life. Physical education has been concerned throughout history to understand this process in order to have the possibility of an active contribution with respect to their educational practice. In this sense social skills allow adjustment psychosocial conditions as also the creation of rich and meaningful partners repertoires. On this track, this study aims to understand social skills in the context of Physical Education and relate it to human development. For this we performed a literature search with a qualitative analysis of the problem investigated. The need to promote and optimize the repertoire of skills in social relations becomes very useful since their absence or difficulty may interfere with the performance and effectiveness of social education and human development. In Physical Education there is the possibility of understanding an individual's social environment in all dimensions, and all the fragmented as a result will bring a fragmentation process in the ways the child's education.
Keywords: Physical Education. Human development. Social skills.
|EFDeportes.com, Revista Digital. Buenos Aires, Año 16, Nº 161, Octubre de 2011. http://www.efdeportes.com/||
1 / 1
Human development in all its dimensions, as well as motor learning has been the focus of publications, and in turn reflections in various vehicles of socialization and the academic world in Brazil. Authors with Galahue and Ozmun, Wallon, Vigostsky, Piaget and Bee systematize theories about human development that has allowed and still allow the development of Physical Education with a theoretical foundation to its proper objects and content.
With this, the possibility to better understand this phenomenon is growing every day. Human development is studied by several researchers throughout history. In this sense we can understand the assumptions from various contexts that nurture the physical education professional possibilities for intervention solid and secure in widely different fields of work. We can understand from this, quite reductionist, but timely, that the development assumes a continuous process of changes in functional capacity and we are in constant changes that may be more or less observable in periods of human life, manifesting faster or slower as a result of the maturation process and experience, stimulation (ELIAS, 1994).
Given that the social relations permeate human life, we understand that human development is given in a relational and procession, that is a dynamic network of interdependence relationships between people, there is always a balance of power between them.
From this, the process of social change is seen in a long-term, and the formation of the individual is integrated with the organization of society, interfering with one another. The changes that arise during the development affect human social interaction, emotional, behavioral, physiological and cognitive at all stages of life.
The ability to organize, control and execute movements is that characterize the motor development and its contribution to human development.
Motor development is a change in behavior continues throughout life by needs and tasks, the biology of the individual and the environment in which they live (GALAHUE E OZUMN, 2001). Order to Faria (2004), motor development is an ongoing process and time-consuming and occurs in phases and stages of maturation and inevitably depends on the environment.
The evolution of motor performance in childhood and adolescence is strongly associated with the processes of growth and maturation. Because of this interdependent relationship, in the assessment of motor performance should be considered aspects of physical growth and biological and chronological ages (BÖHME, 1999).
We also note that in addition to motor development, other aspects are considered extremely important for human development. In this study, we consider that the skills and social competence in human development enables a learning process that understands the direction of an individual to interpersonal relations in various sectors of society.
We understand that social skills do not focus directly on the development of physical education; we realized the need to evaluate social skills as they affect quality of life, productivity, health, especially in interpersonal relationships.
Some studies in this area have noted that the terms social skills and social competence are employed, often as a synonym, as well as social performance. However, they differ. Caballo (1993) does not differentiate between assertiveness of all social skills. In this perspective will cover all terms in the same etymological perspective.
The same author asserts that the above conduct socially skilled is defined as the set of behaviors emitted by an individual in an interpersonal context and meaningful to express feelings, attitudes, desires, opinions, or rights of that individual appropriately to the situation, observing these behaviors in others, and which usually solve immediate problems while minimizing the likelihood of future problems.
Order to Del Prette e Del Prette (2001) social skills relate to the existence of different classes of social behaviors in the repertoire of the individual to deal adequately with the demands of interpersonal situations.
Given this context this initial study aimed at understand the core social skills in the context of Physical Education and relate it to human development. For this we performed a literature review with a qualitative analysis of the problem investigated.
Given the elaborate presentation of the subject of the research question follows: how to frame social skills in the context of Physical Education and relate them to human development
We assume that social skills directly affect human development, specifically in motor development. His relationship rests on the possibility of an integral development of the individual.
To understand the text of the study structured in four stages, namely: initial considerations, human development and motor development, social skills, skills required and the final considerations.
Human and motor development
Order to Bee (1996) human development occurs by the interaction of the individual and the environment, and the impact of the environment can be evidenced in different facets of the physical, cognitive and social.
Mastery of fundamental movement skills is the basis for the child's motor development. The motor experiences generally provide multiple information about the perceptions of themselves and the world around them (GALLAHUE E OZMUN, 2001).
For Negrine (1995), the pre-school is the time of the acquisition of basic motor skills, fundamental movements are true kinetic nuclei. This ability to move increasingly autonomous is related to several factors: neurological maturation that allows more complex movements, body growth, which at the end of this period will allow greater possibility of field body, facilitating the movement and availability to perform motor activities.
Order to this stimulation Education Physics in his vast work process enables the development of the child in her large movement, with which it is increasingly encouraged to understand your body, watching her body image, cognitive and behavioral skills and your chances of walking
In childhood education physical education activities based on the motor stimulation. We understand that the child should aim to develop the largest possible number of moves to that at the end of this step is preferably present mature in relation to fundamental movements, handling, stability and locomotion (BARBOSA, 1997).
The learning process is also subject of discussion among researchers in the development. Order to Bandura (1979) and Papalia and Olds (1998)is for social interactions, children learn to relate to peers and adults and put yourself in the shoes of others, acquire new behaviors by observing the behavior of others.
The environment is the instigator of the compensatory processes for the development of children and interfere in a positive, but negative (VYGOTSKY, 1997).
Bandura (1979) also asserts that the child's learning is facilitated through processes of modeling, in which new behaviors are acquired and existing patterns of responses are modified by observing the behavior of other people and their consequences.
The necessity to notice and conceive of culture in this behavior and therefore the conditions of a collective learning and history seem to be a foundational component for the emergence of body awareness, so human, be it in any dimension.
Certainly this body consciousness detached from a historical perspective - socially produced - is the least unsustainable, after all the social dimension in its historical course is that it allows - or is it intrinsic - relational commitments, therefore, collective and community.
From these considerations of teaching learning process for human development, and consequently the motor development, we can understand the relationship between the several factors that make up an integrated development, and social factors that in a significant way affect their relationship living social.
Social skills: a concrete possibility
Social competence in children is considered essential for their development and psychosocial adjustment, indicating that an impoverished social behaviors is one of the factors that may predispose the young to the onset of psychological problems (DEL PRETTE e DEL PRETTE, 2005; GOMIDE, 2003; MARINHO, 2003).
In a more direct approach to the performance of parents in the educational relationship with their children, Del Prette e Del Prette (2001) propose the analysis of these practices from the concept of social education skills, defined as "those intentionally aimed at promoting development and learning from each other "(p.95).
Del Prette e Del Prette (1999) report that the term social skill refers to the individual's performance in social interactions, and can be classified into three dimensions: personal, situational and cultural. The personal dimension divides the social skills of two classes of behavior: molars (ability to place orders, initiate, maintain and end conversations, expressing affection, among others) and molecular (verbal components of content and form, not verbal, cognitive and affective physiological).
The learning of social skills begins in childhood, first with the family and later in other contexts (school and community), the family is the basis of initial stimulation patterns of relationship and social competence (DEL PRETTE E DEL PRETTE, 1999; GOMIDE, 2003).
Del Prette e Del Prette (1999) argue that social skills correspond to a broader universe of interpersonal relations and extend beyond assertiveness, including communication skills, problem solving, cooperation and those of their own established social rituals the sub-group culture, among other factors.
For the same authors above there can be no single pattern of social skills. But one answer can be considered assertive, when the person believes to be appropriate for an individual in a given situation. Likewise, there is no single way to act appropriately to the specific situation. That is, two people can behave differently in the same situation, or the same person in two similar situations, and both are regarded with the same degree of assertiveness.
Some personal features for educators (whether teachers or parents) allude to an elaborate set of diverse and socially skillful behaviors in order to facilitate education and social-emotional development. According to Del Prette e Del Prette (2001), these resources include, for example: creativity to diversify opportunities for educational interactions, observation, analysis and discrimination of children's performances and progress, the ability to encourage the child to engage in solving their everyday problems, presenting new challenges to the child; flexibility to back off or admit failure and, if necessary, change to better meet the needs of the child.
Orders to the classes are focused on social skills: self-expression and emotional skills of civility, empathy, assertiveness, problem solving, interpersonal, and meet academic and social skills.
Although guard against some specificity about to the other, the seven classes are considered complementary and should be, as far as possible, programs covered by social skills training for children.
We understand that the issue is very complex and multifaceted. We perceive the necessity of more study in order to enable subsidies to the development of programs for interventional seal with parents, teachers and professionals from several areas of treatment of children and teenagers, in order to prevent and reduce the principal psychological problems for children, avoiding effectively the problems of socialization, especially in school.
Human development from the Physical Education has been established primarily in motor development. Although we know the importance of the human, we must consider that other dimensions are of equal importance to the individual learning as well as to socialize.
The growing importance attached to family participation and integration in the learning process has also contributed to social formation system of the individual. In this sense there is to highlight the fundamental importance of family involvement in the life of the individual from which we can understand the limits and potential of families to support the actions of living and social inclusion, and from this understand the human being in his entirety.
In its development the individual, specifically the child passes through various processes of socialization, which is subject to certain social factors, by a group capable of influencing the conduct of the person within this group, enabling him to become a social being. These mechanisms of socialization tendency towards uniformity in behavior among members of a society.
Order to Zagury (1996) the socialization process, implemented in parallel by the family and school, is just one of the basic control of adverse situations, e.g., aggressiveness.
During social interactions a child can modify his behavior as a result of how other children are reacting group, and this requires a complexity of social skills that are essential for staying within this group.
In their development the person, specifically the child goes through several socialization processes, which is subject to certain social factors, by a group capable to influence the conduct of the person within this group, enabling him to become a social being. These arrangements of socialization tendency toward a uniformity in behavior between members of the same society.
Order to Zagury (1996) the socialization process, implemented parallel by the family and school, is just one of the basic control of adverse situations, for example, aggressiveness.
The development of social skills has been attributed mostly to the family and school. However, while neglecting the promoting social skills, the school has difficulty in dealing with interpersonal conflicts that become increasingly serious. Given the importance of the teacher as an agent of the achievement of school goals (DEL PRETTE e DEL PRETTE, 2001).
The family is a is particularly relevant context for children to learn different behaviors, including social ones, especially when parents are prepared for this task. So it is considered that, by teaching social skills and education to parents, it is possible to prepare them for situations and create more effective interactions with your child visually impaired, as a means to promote social behaviors.
The child has several skills in their repertoire, but do not use them in various situations. On the other hand one cannot disregard the fact that social competence is situational and relational and thus subject to cultural norms and values, personal factors and learning experience.
The need to promote and optimize the repertoire of skills in social relations becomes very useful since their absence or difficulty can interfere with the performance and efficacy of social education and human development.
In Physical Education there is the possibility of understanding an individual's social environment in all dimensions, and all the fragmented as a result will bring a fragmentation process in the ways the child's education.
The bodies are all educated by the reality that surrounds them, for all things that live, the relationships that are established in areas defined and limited by acts of knowledge, in which an education that shows how polysemous and multidimensional face and processes in a unique way, gives not only by words but by looks, gestures, things, the place where they live (SOARES, 2001).
The development is a process by which the child gains control of one's body and motor and social skills. Encourage and develop the capacity to move represents a kind of knowledge of the potential physical, health behavior and well-being and a way to express, through emotions, feelings and modes of communication, movement, therefore, represents a way to relate with others and the world.
During the social interactions a child can modify their behavior as a result of how other children are reacting group, and this requires a complexity of social skills that are essential for staying within this group.
BANDURA, A. Modificação do comportamento. Rio de Janeiro: Interamericana, 1979.
BARBOSA, C. L. A. Educação Física Escolar. Ed Vozes. Petrópolis, 1997.
BEE, H. A criança em desenvolvimento. Porto Alegre: Artes Médicas, 1996.
BÖHME, M. T. S. Aptidão física de jovens atletas do sexo feminino analisada em relação a determinados aspectos biológicos, idade cronológica e tipo de modalidade esportiva praticada. 1999. Tese (Livre Docência) - Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo.
CABALLO, V. E. Manual de Evaluación y Entrenamiento de las Habilidades Sociales. Madrid: Siglo Veintiuno, 1993.
DEL PRETTE, Z. A. P.; DEL PRETTE, A. Psicologia das habilidades sociais: terapia e educação. Petrópolis: Vozes, 1999.
DEL PRETTE, Z. E DEL PRETTE, A. Psicologia das relações interpessoais: vivências para o trabalho em grupo. Rio de Janeiro: Vozes, 2001.
DEL PRETTE, Z. A. P.; DEL PRETTE, A. Psicologia das Habilidades Sociais na Infância: teoria e prática. Petrópolis: Vozes, 2005, p. 15-49.
ELIAS, N. A sociedade dos indivíduos. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar, 1994.
FARIA, A. M. Lateralidade: Implicações no Desenvolvimento Infantil. 2º ed. Sprint, 2004.
GALLAHUE, D. L.; OZMUN, J. C. Compreendendo o Desenvolvimento Motor: bebês, crianças, adolescentes e adultos. São Paulo: Phorte, 2001.
GOMIDE, P. I. C. Estilos parentais e comportamento anti-social. In: Del Prette, Z. A. P.(Orgs.). Habilidades sociais, desenvolvimento e aprendizagem: questões conceituais, avaliação e intervenção. Campinas: Alínea, 2003, p. 21-60.
MARINHO, M. L. Estilos parentais e comportamento anti-social. In: Del Prette, Z. A. P.(Orgs.). Habilidades sociais, desenvolvimento e aprendizagem: questões conceituais, avaliação e intervenção. Campinas: Alínea, 2003, p. 61-68.
NEGRINE, A. Aprendizagem e desenvolvimento Infantil. Porto Alegre: Prodil, 1995.
PAPALIA, D.E.; OLDS, S.W. O mundo da criança: da infância à adolescência. 2ª. São Paulo: Markon Books, 1998.
SOARES, C. Imagens da educação no corpo. Campinas: Autores Associados, 1998.
VYGOTSKY, L. S. Obras escogidas: fundamentos de defectología. Tomo V. Madrid: Visor, 1997.
ZAGURY, Tânia. O adolescente por ele mesmo. 5ºed. Rio de Janeiro: Record, 1996.
Another articles in English
Digital · Año 16 · N° 161 | Buenos Aires,
Octubre de 2011