Is there a ‘blank spot’ in Latin America sports history?

Existe uma ‘página em branco’ na história do esporte da América Latina?

¿Existe una ‘página en blanco’ en la historia del deporte en América Latina?


Mestranda do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Física

da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, UFES

Membro do Centro de Estudos em Sociologia

das Práticas Corporais e Estudos Olímpicos (CESPCEO)

Pesquisadora do Grupo de Estudos em Representação Social e Mídia

no Esporte – GERSOM, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz – UESC

Doiara Silva dos Santos








          Objective: This research was motivated by the question: is there a “blank spot” in Latin America (LAM) sports history as suggested by Kraemer-Mandeau’s work on Latin America and the Olympic Winter Games (OWG)? This study is aimed to explore the development of LAM Olympic sports history through publications on the topic. Methods: Through the content analysis, Arbena’s (1989, 1999) annotated bibliographies of Latin America Sport were analyzed. Results: We noticed that Kraemer-Mandeau’s assertion is equivocated. Conclusions: A reason that might be considered to give explanation for a lack of attention to Latin America involvement in the OWG is that these Games themselves had an uneasy history to be consolidated around the world.

          Keywords: History. Sport. Latin America.



          Objetivo: Esta pesquisa foi motivada pela questão: existe uma “página em branco” na história do Esporte da América Latina (LAM) como sugerido no trabalho Kraemer-Mandeau sobre a America Latina e os Jogos Olímpicos de Inverno (OWG)? Este estudo objetiva explorar o desenvolvimento da história do Esporte da América Latina a partir de publicações sobre o tema. Método: A partir da análise de conteúdo, resenhas bibliográficas de Arbena (1989, 1999) sobre o Esporte Latino Americano foram analisadas. Resultados: Percebemos que a afirmação de Kraemer-Mandeau é equivocada. Conclusões: Uma razão a ser considerada para explicar a lacuna de atenção para o envolvimento da América Latina nos OWG é que estes Jogos por si mesmo tiveram uma história difícil para se consolidarem pelo mundo.

          Unitermos: História. Esporte. América Latina.


EFDeportes.com, Revista Digital. Buenos Aires, Año 15, Nº 153, Febrero de 2011. http://www.efdeportes.com/

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    This work is motivated by questions which emerged from Kraemer-Mandeau’s work1 on Latin America and the Olympic Winter Games (OWG). When reading it, one can notice the reasons pointed out by the author when trying to explain “a blank spot” that exists (in his opinion), in the history of sports concerning Latin America involvement with the OWG.

    The first reason pointed out is that Latin Americans athletes have never had expressive results at the OWG (they have never won any medals). Moreover, there have been striking qualitative differences between them and other athletes (Europeans, North Americans, etc.).

    The second reason shown by Kraemer-Mandeu (1994) caught our attention. He argues that “[…] the science of sport and, in particular, sport history have been almost exclusively concentrated on the North Hemisphere” (KRAEMER-MANDEAU, 1994, p. 154). Such an argument goes further than the Olympic Winter Games context. It involves Latin America sport history and also its Olympic history.

    It is possible that Kraemer-Mandeu had a misconception about Latin America sport, which is comprehensive if we consider that one of the most experienced researchers on the topic, Arbena (1989), confessed:

    I began looking at the obviously significant phenomenon of sport in Latin America with the belief that little was available on the subject in English and that not much of an analytical or historical nature existed in any language. Much to my delight I quickly learned I was wrong, especially on the second count.

    This study is aimed to explore the development of Latin America Olympic sports history through publications on the topic prior to 1994 (when Kraemer-Mandeu’s work entitled “Latin America and the Winter Olympics – a ‘blank spot’ in sports history” was published).


    It is a hypothesis in this study that Latin American Olympic sport history was fairly well developed (if not qualitative at least quantitatively) prior to 1994. Thus, this aspect cannot be pointed out as a reason for the scarcity (or even the inexistence, a “blank”) of scholar’s works on Latin Americans involvement with the OWG.

    To test this hypothesis, it was used Joseph L. Arbena’s annotated bibliography of Latin America Sport published in 1989, which itself proves the inexistence of a “blank” as reinforced by Kraemer-Mandeu (1995). It contains 1.339 (a thousand three hundred and thirty nine) annotated citations of books, articles, documents, unpublished thesis, and other sources relating to the practice and study of Sport in Latin America from before the European conquest to 1989.

    In order to look for materials from 1989 to 1994, it was used a more recent work of Arbena which contains annotated publications dating from 1988 to 1998. But, it only will be included data prior to 1994. It was not included in this study works which had the words Olympics (or similarities) if they were misused to refer, for example, to “national” Olympic Games.

    It is a limitation of this study that we could not consult the works cited for our own internal references. But it is important to notice that Arbena’s general criterion for inclusion of any work (even journalistic pieces) was that it offers some analytical perspective or contains material which would help to develop such a perspective.

    The analytical perspective used in the current research is that of content analysis, in which data is organized in categories and interpreted by the author through a dialogue with the bibliographies adopted to discussion.

    It is relevant to notice that Kraemer-Mandeu did not specify in which definition of “Latin America” his arguments were based on. Whether he was talking about a geographical or cultural concept, or both. Arbena in turn, defined Latin America geographically, it “encompasses everything in the Western Hemisphere south of the United States” (ARBENA, 1989, p. 4).

    Thus, Arbena’s annotations selected to this analysis are the ones related to the Olympics about countries which were also analyzed by Kraemer-Mandeu (1994): Mexico (geographically situated in North America), Costa Rica, Guatemala, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Panama, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.

Results and discussion

    Chart 1 shows general authors (from different parts of the world) who wrote on the topic and were identified by Arbena. The works listed date from the 1970s to the 1980s. The latter period is often remembered by historians as a “lost decade” for Latin America because of economic stagnation, unemployment and inflation. It is related to a debt crisis which started (for some countries) in the 1970s.

    In this context, two of the works listed mentioned economic aspects of Latin American Olympic participation.

Chart 1 – General authors who wrote on Latin America and the Olympic Games


What is it about?

Prokop, Dave, et al. 1976 Olympic Games: A Close-up Look at the Track & Field events. Mountain View, CA: Runner’s World Magazine, 1977. Pp. 255. Illus., tables

Contains brief summaries of the races in Montreal of two Latin American track men: Alberto Juantorena, “El Caballo”, the first Olympic runner ever to win the 400-800 meter double; and, Mexico’s Daniel Bautista, who set an Olympic and world record in the walk and won his country’s first gold in any track or field event.

Ball, Donald W., “Olympic Games Competition: Structural Correlates of National Success”, International Journal of Comparative sociology, XIII:3-4 (Sep-Dec, 1972) 186-200.

A critical perspective that concludes overall, success in the Olympic Games “is related to the possession of resources, both human and economic” (p.32). That means, in balance, that Latin American countries cannot expect to do well at the Olympics.

Reyes Matta, Fernando, “The Olympic Games in the Latin American Press”, pp.194-217 in Global Ritual: Olympic Media Coverage and International understanding, ed. Michel Real. San Diego: [p.p], 1986. Tables. A research report submitted to UNESCO, Paris.


Analyzes Latin American reporting on the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles. Using samples from six papers in five countries and personal impressions on television coverage. Concludes that for most Latin America countries the Olympics were more important as a spectacle “to be seen in terms of the North as a giant and an impoverished South”, rather than a significant sporting event, since, except for Mexico and Brazil, those countries had no chance to play an important role.

Seppanen, Paavo, “Olympic Success: A Cross-National Perspective”, pp. 93-116 in Handbook of Social Science of Sport, eds. Günther R. F. Lüschen & George H. Sage. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing Company, 1981.


Using his own coefficient of success at Olympic Games the author concludes that “Catholic” societies, including all of Central and South America (except Cuba since 1969), rank lowest among four categories. Socialist and Protestant countries rank highest.

    The amount of works published about Mexico and the Olympics is (not surprisingly) bigger than any other country, especially because the City of Mexico hosted the Olympics in 1968.

    Although Mexico is geographically situated in North America both Kraemer-Mandeu and Arbena considered it in their analysis as a Latin American country. Arbena’s geographical definition (mentioned above) encompasses Mexico. In the case of Kraemer-Mandeu, it might be the same case or a cultural definition that considers all countries in which a Romance Language (i.e., those derived from Latin) – particularly Spanish, Portuguese, and variably French – are primarily spoken.

    Chart 2 shows some of the 21 annotations found on Arbena’s publication of 1989 about Mexico and the Olympics. Among them, there is one which contains a summary of both Summer and Winter Olympics. The so-called “blank spot” is debunked even when talking about “Latin America” involvement with OWG.

Chart 2 - Annotations of publications about Mexico and the Olympics prior to 1989


What is it about?

P. 58 Annotation 257

Beezlei, William H. “Mexico’s first Olympic team: Paris: 1923”. Unpublished paper presented at the fourteenth annual convention of the North American Society for Sports History, Vancouver, B.C, May 23-26, 1986. Pp.10

Mexico participated in the modern Olympic Games for the first time in 1924. The decision to do so was based primarily on the desire to improve Mexico’s international image following the Revolution of 1910;

Annotation 313, p. 71


Lavín Ugalde, Antonio,” México en los Juegos Olímpicos”. México, D.F: Asociación Nacional de Periodistas, 1968. Pp. [272], 221. Illus., tables. –

It contains narrative sections dealing with the following topics: the ancient Olympics; a history of the principal Olympic sports; a summary of the summer and winter Olympic Games; preparations for and organization of the 1968 Games in Mexico; and, Mexican representation in the previous Olympiads [sic].

Annotation 324, p.73

Malpica de Lamadrid, Luis, “Sudáfrica, el Comité Olímpico Internacional y La posición de México”, Revista de Ciencias Jurídicas, 13 (1969), 73-101. .

Condemns the original decision of International Olympic Committee to allow South Africa to participate at the 1968 Olympic Games, noting that Avery Brundage had acted in a “capricious and prejudicial manner”, explains that Mexico has always “energetically” opposed the discrimination practiced in South Africa

Annotation 334, p. 76

Mera Carrasco, Julio, “De Tókio a México: Los juegos olímpicos”. México, D.F.: Ediciones Deportenas, 1968. Pp.143. Illus., tables.

A compilation of results of all the events at the 1964 Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo, with a few comments on what Mexico is planning to 1968.

Annotation 344, p.77

Olivia, Haro, Olímpicos. “Breve Historia del deporte y del juegos. México”, D.F.: Editorial Novaro, 1968. Pp.157.

What Mexico hopes to achieve in hosting the 1968 Olympics in terms of uniting sport and art to promote international friendship.

Annotation 350, p.79

Plazola Cisneros, Alfredo, Arquitectura deportiva: juegos, deportes y diversión. 2nd Ed. México, D.F.: Editorial Limusa-Wiley, 1973 [1969]. Pp.580. Illus., diagrams.

Indicates facilities constructed for 1968 Games in Mexico.

Annotation 360, p. 81

Revueltas, José, “TV y cultura en los juegos de la XIX Olimpiada”, La palabra y el hombre, No. 23, Nueva época (July – September 1977), 6-7.

Critical of the way television programming has developed. Expresses the hope that the extensive television equipment will later be used for educational purposes and that the Games will produce in Mexicans a greater psychological willingness to learn via screen.

Annotation 368, p.82

Satow, Armando, “Cuatro años de preparación culminaron con una organización que fue brillante”, Uno más Uno, III:961 (July, 15, 1980),31.

On Mexico´s major steps to prepare its team and facilities for the 1968 Olympic Games.

Annotation 369, p. 82

________, “En Amsterdam, nuestro futbol empezó a coleccionar derrotas”, Uno más Uno, III:953 (July 7, 1980), 31.

Mexico had participated in its first Olympic Games in Paris (1924), but did not send a soccer team until 1929. In balance, all Mexican athletes did poorly in Amsterdam.

    Most of the works identified (including the journalistic pieces) were published about the 1968 Olympics. If Mexico is considered a Latin American country, it was the first and unique time (until Rio de Janeiro 2016) that a city of Latin America hosted the Games.These Games were the first Olympic Games hosted by a developing country, the first Games hosted by a Spanish-speaking country and it was the second to be hosted outside of Europe, Australia, or the United States (WHITHERSPOON, 2008).

    As the Ancient Greek had an appellant “aura” to “revitalize” moral values on the modern Olympics (YOUNG, 1984), the development of Physical Education and sport in Latin America is also an appellant theme to explore the Olympic ideals on the publications listed below.

Chart 3 – Physical Education and sport development as appellant themes to explore the Olympic ideals.


What is it about?

Costa Rica

P. 94, Annotation 420

Pacheco López, Rodrigo, Educación Física y deportes (resumen histórico). [San José, C.R.]: Universidad de Costa Rica, 1978. Pp. 142. Tables, bibl.

Meant to serve as a basic text for University-level course on the history of physical education, with large sections devoted to the Ancient Greeks athletes and the modern Olympics. Author sees Costa Rica lagging behind in training professionals to become instructors and notes limited progress.


p. 138 Annotation 605

Alemandri, Próspero G., Moral y deporte. 2nd, Ed.; Buenos Aires: Librería Del Colegio, 1937. Pp. 168.

Thought on the social and moral nature of modern Sport by the president of Confederación Argentina de Deportes and the Comité Olímpico Argentino. First edition given to Argentine Athletes preparing for 1936 Games in Berlin. Rejects professionalism.


p. 233, annotation 1.047

“[Cuarenta] 40 años de a educación física en Colombia”, Colombia Stléica, 21 (January 1977), 17-18.

Summarizes the major steps in the development of physical education in Colombia. Notes influence on Colombian sports interests of Pierre de Coubertin, of sports brought from other countries, and of legacy of Colombian’s indigenous cultures.


p. 265, 1191

Pausée Reyes, Héctor, and Hugo Ricaldoni, El deporte uruguayo y su presencia en Londres. Montevideo: Comité Olímpico Uruguayo, 1948. Pp.32.

Two speeches given in the Uruguayan Cámara de Diputados in support of a bill to provide funds for Uruguayan athletes to participate in the 1948 Olympics in London. Argues that such support would advance domestic sports and physical education and, thus, the well-being of the society and would promote nationalism and the Uruguayan image in foreign countries.

    Biographies of athletes who participated on the Olympics were also analyzed by Latin American authors. This is representative because life stories examine personality traits, outside influences and events in the lives of someone else whose role was meaningful in a certain society. In this case, the Olympics made these athletes’ careers and lives differentiated and attractive to the authors listed below.

Chart 4 – Biographies of Latin American athletes who participated in the Olympics


What Is It About?


P. 110 annotation 486

Martin, Eddy, Por las rutas del Olimpo. La Habana: Editorial Científico-Técnica, 1985 [1982]. Pp. 98, [16]. Illus., tables. Prologue by Elio E. Constantín.

A collection of sketches of the athletic careers of 11 Cuban International champions. It emphasizes that Cuba has more Olympic Medals than any other Latin American country.


p.111 annotation 488

Montesinos, Enrique, “Alberto Juantonera: astro y ejemplo”. La Habana: Editorial Científico-Técnica. 1985[1980]. Pp. 218. Illus., tables. Prologue by Elio E. Constantín.

A biography of the world’s premier middle distance runners, counting medals at 400 and 800 meters at the Montreal Olympics.


p. 127, 561

Carnegie, Jimmy, Donald Quarrie: The career of an Olympic Champion. Kingston: Jamaica Publishing House, 1978. Pp. 124. Illus.

A popular biography of the Jamaican sprint champion who, at Montreal in 1976, won a silver medal in the 100 meters and gold in the 200 meters.

    Nationalist concerns were also expressed. The works listed on Chart 5 are focused on specific countries’ representation at the Olympics. Performances, results and anecdotal accounts are a comprehensive part of the “branding moments” provided by the Olympics which lead to “stories we tell ourselves about ourselves” (DYRESON, 2004).

Chart 5 – The emphasis on national participation at the Olympics


What is it about?


Annotation 752, p.169.

Ramírez Pablo A., “Todos los Mundiales”, Todo es Historia, XIX: 229 (May-June 1986), 8-28. Illus.

A summary of the soccer World Cup, from its origin in the 1924 and 1928 Olympics. The emphasis, though not exclusive, is on the performance – or reasons for non-participation – of Argentina in each competition.


Annotation 932, p.209.

Paioli, Caetano Carlos, Brasil olímpico. São Paulo: Imprensa Oficial do Estado, 1985. Pp. 377. Bibl. Presentation by Helcio Carvalho de Castro.

A survey and chronicle of Brazilian participation in the modern Olympic Games and the Pan American Games. Includes sports organizations, leaders, participants, and performance records.


Annotation 489, p. 111.

Ortega, Víctor Joaquín, Las Olimpiadas, de Atenas a Moscú. La Habana: Editorial Gente Nueva, 1979. Pp. 155. Illus., tables. Bibl.

A game-by-game history of the modern Olympics with an emphasis on: Cuban participation and its improvement since revolution; racism, professionalism and other failures of American imperialism and capitalism.

    As a consequence of the ‘Olympic Explosion’ in the 1920s and 1930s political aspects of sports developments and organization also rose in the later years (TORRES, 2008). These aspects can be found on critical views and analytical perspectives as cited below.

Chart 6 - General opinions on politics and sport organization


What is it about?


P. 97, annotation 430

López Ramírez, Augusto, “‘Carter jugó una carta sucia; por eso venimos’: delegados guatemaltecos,” Uno Más Uno, III: 962 (July 16, 1980), 31.

Based on interview in Moscow with a member of the Guatemalan Olympic Delegation, Kenneth Downing.


Annotation 463, p. 104

Castro, Fidel. El movimiento Olímpico internacional, la grave crisis que se va a generar en torno a los juegos de Seul en 1988, y la única solución posible. La Habana: Editora Política, 1985. Pp.8.

A Cuban premier opines about the crisis in the Olympic Movement, in short turn, by sharing the 1988 Games between the two Koreas and, in long run, by putting an agency of the United Union in charge of the Games.

Dominican Republic

p. 117, Annotation 517

Ouviedo, Jaime E., “New World Olympics”, Américas, 26:4 (april 1974), 38-39.

Claims that the Games serve to “foster better understanding between nations” and popular support shows that “sports are an intrinsic element in the life of all people”.

    In a later publication in 1998, Kraemer-Mandeu reinforces the existence of a “virtually ‘blank spot’ of Latin America in relation to the Olympic Games” (p. 180). In this publication there is evidence that his arguments on this “blank spot” are based on quantitative data and the author does not even mention the OWG. He is talking about the Olympic Games in general.

    Kraemer-Mandeu does not mention which criteria he used when making considerations about a Latin American “blank spot” in sport history. Is it a quantitative consideration? Does it have to do with qualitative materials he could not find? Or, is this judgment based on both the former and latter aspects?

    Differently from his 1994 publication, and in a contradictory assertion, he recognizes the existence of “few” authors who have examined this topic in papers, book chapters or notes2 questioning the “inexplicable little interest shown in Latin America’s participation at the Olympics” (p. 181). The author did not provide on both publications information about how developed was North American sport history, nor quantitative nor qualitative in comparison to Latin America.

    In 1999, Joseh L. Arbena published his second compilation of annotated bibliographies on Latin American sport. It contains again more than a thousand references on the topic.

    Not surprisingly Kraemer-Mandeau figures among the authors that Arbena identified in this second compilation of Latin America sport from 1988 to 1998. Kraemer-Mandeu published in 1995 the work “Latin America and the Olympic Games: a ‘blank spot’ in sports history”. In Arbena’s annotation of this work says: “Though Latin America has had limited impact on the modern Olympics, their participation deserves greater recognition than it has previously received” (p.28).

    Thus, in Kraemer-Mandeau’s publication of 1995, the “blank” was sustained during these years. But, in both Arbena’s compilations there are works written about Latin America and the Olympic Games listed, even considering Kraemer-Mandeau’s “undefined” conception of Latin America which includes Mexico as a Latin American country. As Arbena (1989, p. 10) says “although scholastic sports are not as extensive in Latin America as in North America, they do exist in various forms”.

    Final considerations: a reason that might be considered

    First of all, it is without question that a “blank” might not exist concerning Latin America Olympic sport history as Kraemer-Mandeu suggested in 1994 and again in 1998. The lists provided above illustrated this point.

    Particularly about the OWG, we agree that a non-expressive result (which means no medals) is a reasonable fact to be pointed out for explaining the lack of attention to Latin American countries involvement with the OWG. This is not the main reason, though.

    Thus, a reason that might be considered to give explanation for this lack of attention to Latin America involvement in the OWG (until 1994) is that those Games themselves had an uneasy history around the world. Sometimes named as the “unwanted stepchild of the Olympics” (GERLACH, 2004, p. 6) the OWG suffered from widespread inattention from press and public in general.

    Historically, the winter sports were not immediately embraced by the masses, the media, or vice-versa. Kraemer-Mandeu identified that the 1980s policies of expansion by IOC were important to increase Latin American athlete’s participation at OWG. But, he ignored that these policies were related to the important role of commercialization of television (TV) rights.

    At first, the TV rights fees paid for broadcasting the summer Games and the OWG were different. Thus, the former reached many more countries and were sold for much more money (BARNEY; MARTYN; WENN; 2002). But in the 1980s the IOC – which depended on TV rights for their expenses –, commercialized a package to sell the TV rights for both the Summer and Winter Games (not separately anymore) in order to guarantee income during the Olympiad (understood as a quadrennial period between the Games).

    It is difficult to assert precisely how important television broadcasting was to the popularization of the OWG but, surely, the TV market had a role on its expansion. Majid (2005) explored the growth of the television audience for the OWG in ‘non-traditional’ markets. He defined ‘non-traditional’ markets as: (1) countries which had never participated or which participation at the Olympic Winter Games is a recent phenomenon; nations who had never won an Olympic Winter medal or (and) which climate conditions are such that a small minority of the population can practice winter sports (MAJID, 2005, p. 2).

    Majid (2005) asserted that broadcasters representing each nation have gradually been increasing the rights fees paid to broadcast the OWG in their market area. The author based his argument on the fact that the combination of multiple narratives, embedded genres, and layered symbols allows the Games to attract a demographically diverse audience.

    In fact, the Olympic “brand” is world-wide recognized. Then, why did the Olympic Winter Games, first held in Paris 1924 (retroactively recognized), not enjoy the same attention and enchantment as the Summer Games?

    According to Gerlach (2004), Coubertin participated and enjoyed winter sports, but he did not envision their inclusion in the Modern Olympic Games since the very beginning for both historical and philosophical reasons: (1) snow and ice sports were not part of the Ancient Olympics; (2) They did not further the Olympic ideal of widespread geographical.

    Moreover, commercialism and professionalism seemed to be endemic to sports such as skiing and skating, and they could undermine the Olympic core principle of amateurism. It is not by chance that the OWG were sometimes named as “the unwanted stepchild of the Olympics” (GERLACH, 2004, p. 6).

    Avery Brundage (IOC president from 1952-1972) was an outspoken critic of what he called “frostible follies” and considered eliminating the Winter Games. Brundage was inspired by lofty and chivalrous, but impractical ideals. He viewed amateurism and political abstinence as the fundamental Olympic values without which the Olympic Idea was doomed to fail.

    The rules of the Winter Games have been changed to meet the new demands. This started happening slowly when Lord Killanin took the presidency. His successor, Juan Antonio Samaranch, continued these changes in a revolutionary way to adapt the Olympic Movement to the demands of its time. This fact marked the expansion of these Games in the 1980s.

    In the era of globalization the OWG are now branding moments to the world. As a result, it is noticeable a rapid evolution of the number of participants, the number of sports, the financial benefit, the records and spectators. This might increase the worldwide attention of scholars (anthropologists, historians, social scientists, etc.) to the phenomenon of non-traditional countries participation at the OWG.


  1. Kraemer-Mandeau, Wolf. Latin America and the Winter Olympics: “a blank spot” in sports history, Pp.154-61. In: Goksoyr, M.; Lippe, G.; Mo, K (Orgs). Winter Games, Warm Tradition. Lillehammer: The International Society for the History of Physical Education and Sport (ISHPES), 1994.

  2. As examples of what he nominates as “exceptions”, in his endnotes there are references to: Martin, E: “Por las rutas del Olimpo”. Havanna [2], 1985; Reyes Matta, F. “The Olympic Games in the Latin America Press”. In: Global Ritual: Olympic media coverage and International understanding. San Diego, 1986, 194-217; Simakov, Y.: “El movimiento Olímpico y América Latina”. In: América Latina, 4 (1980), 74-84.


  • ARBENA, J. An annotated Bibliography of Latin American Sport – Pre-conquest to the present. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1989.

  • ___________. An annotated Bibliography of Latin American Sport, 1988-1998. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1998.

  • BARNEY, R. K.; MARTYN, S. G.; WENN, S. R. Selling The Five Rings: The International Olympic Committee and the Rise of Olympic Commercialism. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, 2002.

  • DYRESON, M. Visions and versions of American culture at the Winter Games. In: GERLACH, L. R. (Ed). The Winter Olympics: from Chamonix to Salt Lake City. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press, p.185-224.

  • FRANCESCHI NETO, M.; WACKER, C. Rio Goes Olympic. Journal of Olympic History, v.17, n. 3, Dez. 2009, p. 6-20.

  • GERLACH, L. R. Introduction. In: __________(Ed.) The Winter Olympics: from Chamonix to Salt Lake City. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press, p.1-17, 2004.

  • KRAEMER-MANDEAU, W. Latin America and the Winter Olympics: “a blank spot” in sports history, p.154-161. In: GOKSOYR, M.; LIPPE, G. V.D.; MO, K (Ed.) Winter Games, Warm Traditions. Lillehammer: The International Society for the History of Physical Education and Sport (ISHPES), 1994.

  • MAJID, K. Exploring the Growth of Television audience for the Olympic Winter Games in Non-traditional Markets. [Thesis – Master of Science in Administration (Marketing) at Concordia University, 2005]. Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

  • TORRES, C. The Latin American ‘Olympic Explosion’ of the 1920s: Causes and consequences. In: MAJUMDAR, B.; COLLINS, S (Ed.) Olympism, The Global Vision: from nationalism to internationalism. London, New York: Routledge, 2008, p.1-24.

  • WHITHERSPOON, Kevin B. Before the eyes of the World: Mexico and the 1968 Games. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2008

  • YOUNG, D. The Olympic Myth of Greek Amateur Athletics. Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1984.

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