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 Validation of an instrument to evaluate oral communication


Validation of an instrument to evaluate oral communication

Validación de un instrumento de evaluación para medir la comunicación oral

Validação de um instrumento de avaliação para medir a comunicação oral

 

PhD. Pablo Eduardo Romo Maroto

promo@uce.edu.ec

PhD. Nancy Isabel Cargua García

ncargua@uce.edu.ec

PhD. Héctor Iván Guerrero Gallardo

higuerrero@uce.edu.ec

MSc. Marco Ricardo Pante Quishpe

mrpante@uce.edu.ec

 

Universidad Central del Ecuador

(Ecuador)

 

Reception: 02/12/2017 - Acceptance: 12/16/2017

1st Review: 12/14/2017 - 2nd Review: 12/14/2017

 

Abstract

    The didactic of the Oral Communication and its development in the classroom has been little treated in recent years. This study analyzes the didactic elements that intervene in the development of oral communication in students of 10th year of schooling. Didactic strategies are proposed for both, listening and speaking. As a central axis, it presents an evaluation instrument for oral communication that has been scientifically validated through Cronbach's Alpha. The instrument develops the three key elements of the integral formation of students: knowledge, skills and values. It has been shown that the sustained work processes of oral communication allow students to develop in an effective way and they can qualitatively be evaluated and measured.

    Keywords: Language didactics. Oral communication. Qualitative evaluation.

 

Resumen

    La didáctica de la Comunicación Oral y su desarrollo en el aula ha sido poco tratado en los últimos años. Este estudio analiza los elementos didácticos que intervienen en el desarrollo de la comunicación oral en los estudiantes de 10º año de escolaridad. Se plantean estrategias didácticas tanto para la escucha como para el habla. Como eje central presenta un instrumento de evaluación para la comunicación oral que ha sido validado científicamente a través del Alfa de Cronbach. El instrumento desarrolla los tres elementos claves de la formación integral de los estudiantes: conocimientos, destrezas y valores. Se ha demostrado que los procesos sostenidos de trabajo de la comunicación oral permiten su desarrollo en los estudiantes de manera efectiva y que estos se pueden evaluar y medir de manera cualitativa.

    Palabras clave: Didáctica de la lengua. Comunicación oral. Evaluación cualitativa.

 

Resumo

    A didática da Comunicação Oral e seu desenvolvimento na sala de aula tem sido pouco tratada nos últimos anos. Este estudo analisa os elementos didáticos que intervêm no desenvolvimento da comunicação oral em alunos da 10ª série. As estratégias didáticas são propostas para ouvir e falar. Como eixo central, apresenta um instrumento de avaliação para comunicação oral que foi validado cientificamente através do Alpha de Cronbach. O instrumento desenvolve os três elementos-chave da formação integral dos alunos: conhecimento, habilidades e valores. Demonstrou-se que os processos de trabalho sustentados da comunicação oral permitem seu desenvolvimento efetivo nos alunos e que estes podem ser avaliados e medidos qualitativamente.

    Unitermos: Didática da língua. Comunicação oral. Avaliação qualitativa.

 

Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, Vol. 22, Núm. 235, Dic. (2017)


 

Introduction

 

    The Didactics of Language and Literature (DLL) is an independent science that has begun its scientific projection since the 80s. When it separates itself from other areas of knowledge and seeks its independence, it finds certain gaps that must be built from the investigation. Under this guideline we can define the theoretical field that will serve for the present investigation.

 

    The DLL is responsible for the study of the teaching of Language and Literature in all its aspects, that is, it will take into account communicational, contextual aspects, diversity in the handling of codes, cognitive, personal and evaluative development that are related to the competent use and management of the language and literature. The DLL could be defined as:

 

    "The contents of the DLL focus on the adaptation, selection and derivation of linguistic and literary knowledge, on the one hand and on the other in the theories of learning and cognitive development that are highlighted in the acquisition, teaching and use of communication skills. But also, it focuses on the generation of original theoretical concepts, typical of the area, which allow responding to the challenges imposed by the didactic action; with the concretion of adequate and coherent methodological approaches for its use in the classroom; and with the design and application of appropriate technical resources for the specific didactic intervention ". (Mendoza, 2003: 5).

 

    The present study focuses on the Didactics of the Language. The Didactics of the Language is closely related to communication. Communication is understood as the complex process of transmitting information from different contexts and situations. It should be noted that the two forms of communication, that is, the communicative act, is composed by oral communication and written communication. Oral communication is a form of interaction between several participants that is based on the speech act (Cantero & Mendoza, 2003). Conversation is the fundamental point of oral communication and depends on the interlocutors and the context in which it takes place. Also, non-verbal aspects and intentions that are given in oral communication must be taken into account and allow us to understand the message with greater precision.

 

    Oral communication is made up of the macro-skills of speaking and listening (Ministry of Education of Ecuador, 2012). These macro-sciences, in turn, are made up of micro-abilities that are acting capacities that allow the development of macro-trails. This research focuses on oral communication with the macro-tastes of listening and speaking. Oral communication is a form of interaction characterized by the practical execution of a conversation. This is the fundamental point of oral communication and depends on the interlocutor or interlocutors, and the context in which it develops. Also, non-verbal aspects and intentions that are given in oral communication must be taken into account and allow us to understand the message with greater precision. Linguistics also contributes to the construction of the oral message, that is, knowledge of the elements that make up the language help the speaker in communication. Oral language does not require grammatical processes as rigorous as written communication, but knowledge of the phonological level, grammatical lexicon, semantic contribute to precise oral communication. Listening (Casanny, Luna & Sanz, 1992) is to understand the message, and in order to do so, a cognitive process of meaning construction and interpretation of an orally spoken discourse must be set in motion. Speaking, on the other hand, is the pragmatic production of oral messages whose explicit formulation involves a series of factors that allow the construction and real emission of said message.

 

   The low training of teachers, regarding to the Didactics of Language and Literature in the Republic of Ecuador, has been one of the factors that has impeded the development of educational innovations. The results of the tests to students, which are below the minimum rates, prove it. The National Average is 665 out of 1000 points for the 10th grade students of the Basic General School in the area of ​​Language and Literature, which is equivalent to an elementary level. These results correspond to the year 2013, which is the last year that has national results (INEVAL, 2013). This study analyzes the didactic elements that intervene in the development of oral communication in students of 10th year of schooling.

 

Methods

 

    The present investigation proposes a strategy for evaluating oral communication through a qualitative evaluation instrument. For this it is necessary that the teacher performs a series of innovative activities in the classroom, to develop activities of oral communication in a sustained, creative way and with the goal of achieving precise objectives that encompass three key aspects of comprehensive education of the human being: knowledge, skills and values. For the evaluation of these innovations, it is essential to create an instrument that contains a series of indicators for the development of oral communication from its integral aspects. Those involved are 10th-year students from three institutions in the city of Quito. These institutions correspond to the three different types of education in force in the Ecuadorian education system: fiscal, private, municipal. Those who will observe the data are the teachers and on the basis of the observation they will complete their indicators. The study subjects are 15 years old which is the evolutionary age of the course. In addition, the evaluation indicators have their respective evaluation rubrics, which will allow teachers-evaluators to achieve maximum objectivity in their assessments.

 

    The technique selected for the investigation was observation. The choice of technique allowed, from the range of instruments that were presented, the selection of one of them. This selected instrument was a descriptive scale with four response options: "always", "almost always", "occasionally" and "never". It contains three sub-criteria or subscales and 17 indicators.

 

    The knowledge and cognitive elements that intervene in oral communication have also been taken into account in the construction of the instrument. In the grammatical part, it is suggested to evaluate the efficient construction of the oral syntagmas and for this, the categorization of the words and their organization when emitting the oral language is taken into account. It is known that grammar is more an aspect of written communication than of oral communication but, if it is taken into account, discourses would lack meaning and organization. Formal communication requires the construction of oral phrases that adhere to written communication in a certain part. In informal communication, these elements do not resemble written communication at all but require the speaker to express their ideas meaningfully and there the implicit knowledge of grammar comes into play although they are unconsciously present in the processes of orality. Both, the listener and the one who issues the message, play a fundamental role in its reception and production. It is not intended in any way to fall into the traditionalism of normative grammar but it is intended to bring to light the importance of turning the grammatical study more towards the pragmatic than the norm. This has been a permanent failure of the Ecuadorian education since it has been tried to teach to speak from the grammatical norm and the teachers end up being more purists than linguists.

 

    The selection of ideas is also a point in the construction of the instrument. The ideas that arise at the moment of oral communication sometimes lack meaning because we talk about the first thing that comes to mind and we do not sift them into oral production. Reflect what is meant by logical order and make the most of the turn of the word in the conversation must be part of the communication. We miss the word and end up saying what we did not want to do because of a lack of care in the fabric of the speech. Working in a didactic way with a timely intervention and with appropriate strategies links the speed of thought to the production of ideas.

 

    The last aspect that was taken into account for the structuring of the instrument was the values ​​and attitudes part. This aspect completes the integrality of the instrument. Here, aspects related to both the message's message and the message's interlocutor have been taken into account. We are what we speak. Through oral communication we are giving symptoms of our being, our formation and our values. No special value has been taken for its construction because the scale of values ​​changes in each one of the people according to the experiences that it has. So if a person never told another that he loved her and this person dies, he will feel in his life that showing signs of affection is fundamental. This situation can change in another person who was ever betrayed and will consider fidelity as something fundamental in his personal relationships. Values ​​are subjective but are expressed through the attitudes that people have. Oral communication greatly allows knowing the attitudes of people. When he expresses his ideas, he makes known his interior world full of socio-affective situations and values ​​that the teacher must take advantage of in order to train his students. Respect for others, tolerance, creativity, the pleasant, the aesthetic emerge in the methodological strategies of oral communication. To make them visible by the teacher and that as a result, the student feels that this introjected and projected world is present in his daily life is to educate for life. Taking them into account in the educational processes helps in an integral formation.

 

    The instrument was structured on the basis of these elements that were deeply analyzed according to the theoretical and experiential references that led to the reflection on the research topic.

 

Results and discussion

 

    To establish the level of reliability of the instrument, it was applied to 74 10th grade students. The results after tabulation were entered into a database of the SPSS statistical program and the Cronbach alpha analysis was used, the analysis was done first in the general level of the whole test, secondly in each of the subscales that make up the test and finally the analysis was done of each item or indicator.

 

    From the aforementioned analysis it was found that at the level of the whole test the coefficient was (.91), which corresponds to a very high reliability index. At the level of the subscales, the following were obtained: in quality standards, they were analyzed from 1 - 7 and an index of (.81) was obtained, in the skills sub - scale the indicators from 8 - 13 were analyzed with a reliability index of (. 79) and in the attitudinal subscale the indicators of 14 - 17 were analyzed and an index of (.91) was presented. In all three cases, the reliability indices show quite high values. The results are expressed in table 1.

 

Table 1. Results of reliability analysis with Cronbach's alpha throughout the instrument and by criteria

Scale

Alfa de Cronbach

Elements

Cases

Instrument

.91

17

74

Standards

.81

7

74

Abilities

.79

6

74

Attitudes

.91

4

74

 

    To establish how each of the indicators contributes to the total of the instrument, the reliability analysis was made by calculating means, variance, correlation and Cronbach's alpha if a certain element is eliminated. It was found that in the case of the means of the indicators it does not significantly alter if any element is eliminated. There are no significant variations between the variances of the indicators if any element is eliminated. In the correlation established between each element with the result of the whole test, it is found that indicators 8 and 10 express an average (4.3) and low (3.7) correlation, respectively. What allowed to review the construction of said indicators and were written in a better way. The results are recorded in table 2.

 

Table 2. Reliability analysis by element with mean, variance, correlation and Cronbach's alpha

Total-element statistics

Indicators

Average of the scale if the element is deleted

Variance of the scale if the element is deleted

Corrected element-total correlation

Cronbach's alpha if the element is deleted

1

41.4865

91.623

.538

.900

2

41.7027

89.664

.552

.900

3

41.7162

91.658

.582

.899

4

41.4865

87.705

.550

.901

5

41.0405

91.628

.498

.901

6

41.5000

89.596

.519

.901

7

41.2162

87.377

.601

.898

8

41.3108

92.984

.432

.903

9

41.4730

86.362

.651

.897

10

41.5135

94.692

.365

.905

11

41.4324

91.290

.566

.900

12

41.5135

89.212

.606

.898

13

41.5135

87.705

.651

.897

14

41.6081

88.625

.639

.897

15

41.6216

88.786

.641

.897

16

41.6486

89.930

.621

.898

17

41.5135

88.363

.669

.896

    

    Once the two validations, experts and internal reliability were carried out, the indicators were readjusted and the final instrument for the evaluation of the oral communication in the 10th year students of the basic general school was elaborated. This was structured in relation to the indicators and their rubric as follows:

 

Indicator 1. Subscale: Quality standards of me

During the communication process, it adapts the record according to the communicative circumstances.

Always

It adapts the use of words and expressions to the interlocutor or interlocutors. It takes into account aspects such as the place, people, circumstances in which communication takes place. It employs according to the circumstance a formal and informal language, cultured and uneducated.

Almost always

It uses the language in an appropriate way with pairs (symmetric) and with people who keep a level away from the speaker or when there is an authority relationship (asymmetric).

It adapts most times the use of words and expressions according to the interlocutor or interlocutors. Then it takes into account aspects such as the place, the people, the circumstances in which the communication takes place. That is to say, it frequently uses depending on the circumstance, a formal and informal language, cultured and uneducated.
It often uses the language in an appropriate way with pairs (symmetrical) and with people who maintain a level away from the speaker or when there is an authority relationship (asymmetric). Adapt occasionally the use of words and expressions according to the interlocutor or interlocutors. It sporadically takes into account aspects such as the place, the people, the circumstances in which the communication takes place. That is to say, it almost does not use according to the circumstance, a formal and informal language, cultured and uneducated.

Occasionally

It rarely uses the language in an appropriate way with pairs (symmetrical) and with people who maintain a level away from the speaker or when there is an authority relationship (asymmetric). Does not adapt the use of words and expressions according to the interlocutor or interlocutors. It is not interested in aspects such as the place, the people, the circumstances in which communication takes place. That is to say, it does not use according to the circumstance a formal and informal, cultured and uncultured language.

Never

It does not use the language adequately with pairs (symmetrical) or with people who keep a level away from the speaker or when there is an authority relationship (asymmetric).

Indicator 2. Subscale: Quality standards of me

Listen carefully to literary and non-literary texts that contain a specific vocabulary and varied textual structures.

Always

He knows how to capture the most important characteristics of literary texts such as stories, legends, traditions or poems and differentiates them from other texts such as expository, argumentative or journalistic by the inherent characteristics of each one. The listening attitude is active and interested, which allows him to understand the ideas of the text from the words that form it.

Almost always

He captures in most cases, the most important characteristics of literary texts such as stories, legends, traditions, poems... and almost always differentiates them from other texts such as expository, argumentative or journalistic by the inherent characteristics of each. The attitude of listening is constantly active and interested, which allows him to understand the ideas of the text from the words that form it.

Occasionally

It occasionally captures the most important characteristics of literary texts such as stories, legends, traditions, poems... and almost does not differentiate them from other texts such as expository, argumentative or journalistic because of the inherent characteristics of each one. The attitude of listening is not very active and almost does not interest what allows you to understand the ideas of the text from the words that form it.

Never

It does not capture the characteristics of literary texts such as stories, legends, traditions or poems and does not differentiate them from other texts such as expository, argumentative or journalistic because of the inherent characteristics of each one. The attitude of listening is not active and almost does not interest what does not allow you to understand the ideas of the text from the words that form it.

Indicator 3. Subscale: Quality standards of me

Use properly the parts of a speech or an oral presentation: introduction, development of the topic and conclusions.

Always

The discourse keeps a relationship between the parts that compose it, that is, it has a beginning in which it develops an introduction to the topic that it wishes to make known. It develops the ideas according to the beginning of the text and does not deviate towards other topics, so it keeps unity and coherence. At the end of the oral text he closes it using conclusions for which he elaborates deductions and logical inferences.

Almost always

The discourse mostly keeps a relationship between the parts that compose it, that is, it has a beginning in which it develops an introduction to the topic that it wishes to speak. The development of ideas is mostly related to the beginning of the text and its deviations are sporadic so it keeps unity and coherence in almost the entire text. At the end it closes it appropriately for it almost always elaborates deductions and logical inferences.

Occasionally

The discourse has almost no relationship between the parts that compose it, that is, there is no connection between the beginning, the development and the closure. The beginning is a bit confusing and although it may be clear it does not connect with the ideas of development. Deviations are permanent, so there is little unity and coherence. He closes the discourse in an inadequate way, so he almost does not elaborate deductions and logical inferences. Speak without maintaining unity and coherence in the text. The ideas are elaborated without taking into account the parts of the discourse so they do not distinguish each of them.

Never

It develops the speech incomprehensibly so it does not come to an end and tends to imply conclusions.

Indicator 4. Subscale: Quality standards of me

It extracts explicit and implicit information.

Always

It demonstrates his understanding of the oral text through data that evidence at an explicit level. that is, what the speaker says without disturbing the information or putting his previous criteria or prejudices before him. It is also able to distinguish the implicit criteria, those that can be inferred from the oral expression and can be understood by intelligent deduction of the data presented. Capture irony, metaphors and hyperboles in a precise way.

Almost always

It demonstrates, almost permanently, that you can develop an understanding of the message in what the sender wants to express, at its literal or explicit level. Frequently understand what they want to say. He almost always deduces the implicit message of oral expression. That is to say, the figurative sense that the language presents to elaborate meanings that are in the second plane of the expression.

Occasionally

It shows little understanding of the message in what you want to indicate the issuer. Little understands what they want to say. It almost does not deduce the implicit message of the oral expression. That is, he rarely understands the figurative meaning presented by language and the meanings that are in the second plane of expression.

Never

It does not understand what they say or does it sporadically. He needs constant clarification of ideas and the explicit meaning is confusing. He does not understand irony, metaphors, hyperboles, that is, the implicit meaning of oral expression. He is unable to make logical inferences from the text and his sense of understanding is very limited.

Indicator 5. Subscale: Quality standards of me

Effectively use the turn of the word to develop the topic, to ask questions and to ask for additional information about the subject that is exposed.

Always

He knows how to take advantage in a timely manner of the turn of the word to develop the topic, that is, he focuses on the topic, does not disperse and is efficient in his arguments. It formulates questions appropriate to the topic and that serve to request important and fundamental clarifications as well as to request additional information on the topic of oral communication, for this their thoughts and questions are coherent, adapted and appropriate.

Almost always

He takes the turn of the word to develop the topic, although it usually comes out sporadically from him, rarely dispersed and is usually efficient in their arguments. It formulates questions almost always adapted to the subject and that serve to request clarifications not always important but yes adequate. Almost always knows to ask for additional information on the subject of oral communication.

Occasionally

The turn of the word is frequently wasted because his thematic deviations are frequent. His interlocutors almost always ask him to focus on the subject. Their arguments are limited and almost do not contribute to develop the theme. The questions he asks are not always adequate and refer to the subject and almost do not serve to make important and fundamental clarifications. When he asks for additional information, he does not do it in a relevant way, since his thoughts and questions are not usually adequate.

Never

He always takes the turn of the word because their thematic deviations are frequent and even fall into disinterest. His interlocutors ask him to focus on the subject. Their arguments do not contribute to developing the theme. The questions he asks are inadequate and do not refer to the topic or do not contribute important and fundamental clarifications. The additional information you request is not relevant since your thoughts and issues are not adequate.

Indicator 6. Subscale: Quality standards of me

Respect the opinion of their interlocutors.

Always

He shows respect for the ideas of his interlocutors even if he does not share them and when he does not share them, he makes them known with empathy. He never makes fun of them or mocks when he does not agree even if the other person shows errors of thematic conception or ignorance. He knows that the opinions of others are not always adequate but he shows respect to the person who issues it and values ​​it as such, for that reason he is friendly and kind.

Almost always

He respects the ideas of their interlocutors but not share them but sometimes shows a certain intolerance. Sometimes he makes fun of them when he does not agree because the other person demonstrates misconceptions or thematic ignorance. He knows that the opinions of others are not always adequate but he almost always shows respect to the person who issues it and values ​​it as such, for that reason he is friendly and kind.

Occasionally

He respects the ideas of his interlocutors and makes known when he does not share them with certain intolerance. He tends to make fun of them if he does not agree especially when the other person demonstrates errors of conception or thematic ignorance. If the opinions of others are not adequate, he shows disrespect for the person who issues it, being aware that this may offend the individual.  

Never

He permanently disrespects the ideas of their interlocutors. He expresses with intolerance his disagreement with other ideas. He makes fun of people and their ideas when he disagrees or when the other person shows errors of conception or thematic ignorance. If the opinions of others are not adequate, they may offend without taking into account basic aspects of respect and tolerance.

Indicator 7. Subscale: Me quality standards

Express and sustain their ideas and approaches with arguments and use verbal and non-verbal techniques to achieve communicative objectives.

Always

He knows how to recognize the arguments that support a thesis, which allows him to bring a thread of the theme. Defend your approach through the correct development of appellative messages. To do this, he correctly uses both oral language and the use of paralinguistic resources (gestures, gestures, body movements).

Almost always

He almost always uses arguments that support a thesis which allows you to bring a thread of the theme. Most times he defends his proposals through the correct development of appellative messages. Permanently uses language both orally and in the use of paralinguistic resources (gestures, gestures, body movements).

Occasionally

He does not always determine the arguments that sustain a thesis which prevents it from continuously carrying the thread of the theme. Almost does not defend their approaches since their appellative messages are not convincing. It presents some difficulties in the use of language both in the oral aspect and in the use of paralinguistic resources (gestures, gestures, body movements).

Never

He does not focus on the arguments that support a thesis which prevents it from continuously carrying the thread of the theme. His approaches are inconsistent so he cannot defend his ideas. It presents many difficulties in the use of language both in the oral aspect and in the use of paralinguistic resources (gestures, gestures, body movements).

Indicator 8. Subscale: Knowledge and psychometer micro-skills

The expressions are emitted in relation to the acoustic elements of accentuation, rhythm, intonation and timbre and intensity of the voice.

Always

There is a correlation between the ideas it expresses and its physical manifestations. He knows how to graduate his voice according to the group in which he finds himself, which makes his presentation pleasant and understandable. The accentuation in the words, according to the significant context, is correct, which helps you maintain a rhythm that facilitates the creation of concepts in the interlocutor. He manages the voice in such a way that it captures the attention of the listener.

Almost always

There is almost always a correlation between the ideas it expresses and its physical manifestations. He usually graduates his voice according to the group he is in, which makes most of his presentations pleasant and understandable. The accentuation in the words. According to the significant context, what is most correct is constantly helping to maintain a rhythm that facilitates the creation of concepts in the interlocutor. It does not always qualify the voice to capture the attention of the listener.

Occasionally

There is almost no correlation between the ideas it expresses and its physical manifestations. Graduates his voice very little according to the group he is in. Your presentation is not so audible pleasant and understandable. The accentuation in the words, according to the significant context, is very rarely correct, which does not help him maintain a rhythm that facilitates the creation of concepts in the interlocutor. In a few occasions, it qualifies the voice in such a way that it almost does not capture the attention of the listener.

Never

There is no correlation between the ideas it expresses and its physical manifestations. In no way does he graduate his voice according to the group he is in. Your presentation is not pleasant and understandable. The accentuation in the words, according to the significant context, is not correct what does not help him maintain a rhythm that facilitates the creation of concepts in the interlocutor. It almost never clouds the voice in such a way that it does not capture the attention of the listener.

Indicator 9. Subscale: Knowledge and psychometer micro-skills

The words are selected from lexical paradigms duly categorized as nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, articles, pronouns, conjunctions and interjections, which allows the construction of significant syntagmas.

Always

He uses a variety of words taken from all grammatical categories and groups them into syntagmas that allow you to achieve the desired communication.         

Almost always

He uses a variety of words taken from most grammatical categories and groups them into phrases that almost always allow you to achieve the desired communication.

Occasionally

He uses few words. These are repetitive and show little richness of vocabulary. They are taken from a few grammatical categories and group them into little coherent ideas that almost do not allow achieving the desired communication.        

Never

He uses repetitive words These show that he has little vocabulary. The grammatical categories of the words used are very few, which makes the ideas incoherent and do not allow to achieve the desired communication.

Indicator 10. Subscale: Knowledge and psychometer micro-skills

The tone of the message, the lexico-ideative selection, the thematization and the discursive tissue (elaboration of the text) are efficient.

Always

The words that it expresses refer to the same subject, for that reason they have similar meanings and are capable of expressing themselves in representations that make a correct reference to meaning and significance. The discourse is appropriate and connects ideas with connectors that allow a cohesive illation of the same.

 

Almost always

The words that he expresses mostly refer to the same subject, because they possess most of the synonymous meanings and are almost always able to express themselves in representations that make a correct reference to meaning and significance. Discourse is adequate and most times it relates ideas with connectors that allow cohesion of the same

Occasionally

Sometimes words that express very little refer to the same subject because they have almost no similar meanings and are not capable of expressing themselves in representations that make a correct reference to meaning and significance. Discourse is inadequate and it almost does not connect ideas with connectors that allow a cohesive illation of the same.

Never

The words that he expresses do not refer to the same topic because they do not have similar meanings and are incapable of expressing representations that make a correct reference to the meaning and significance. Discourse is inappropriate and does not relate ideas. The use of connectors is deficient, which does not allow a cohesion in the discourse.

Indicator 11. Subscale: Knowledge and psychometer micro-skills

It develops oral expression existential representations which means that their meanings can be communicated as: factual, probable, possible, necessary, obligatory, desirable or possible.

Always

His communication expresses nuances that show that his saying is true and verifiable. Try to make the listener distinguish their expressions as desirable, probable or possible according to the sentences that accompany the text. The development of your oral text helps to distinguish your desires, emotions and aspirations.

Almost always

His communication almost always uses nuances that show that his saying is true and verifiable. It tries to a large extent that the listener distinguishes expressions as desirable, probable or possible according to the phrases that accompany the text. The development of his oral text permanently helps to distinguish his desires, emotions and aspirations.

Occasionally

Not always in his communication uses nuances that show that his saying is true and verifiable. It almost does not try to make the listener distinguish the expressions as desirable, probable or possible because the phrases do not accompany those ideas in the text. The development of his oral text almost does not allow to distinguish his desires, emotions and aspirations.         

Never

He does not use nuances that show that his saying is true and verifiable. It does not try to make the listener distinguish the expressions as desirable, probable or possible because the phrases do not accompany those ideas in the text. The development of his oral text does not allow to distinguish his desires, emotions and aspirations.

Indicator 12. Subscale: Knowledge and psychometer micro-skills

He chooses the relevant information, takes into account only the relevant information.

Always

His expressions are related to the theme, provide new ideas, significant or weight and provide new information, accurate and relevant.
           

Almost always

His expressions are very much related to the theme and almost always contribute with new, significant, weighty ideas that provide new accurate and relevant information.
           

Occasionally

Expressions are not very related to the theme and almost do not contribute with new, significant, weighty ideas that provide new information, accurate and relevant. It tends to partial dispersion of the oral message.

Never

His expressions are not related to the theme and do not contribute with new ideas, significant, weight, that provide new information, accurate and relevant. It tends to the total dispersion of the oral message.

Indicator 13. Subscale: Knowledge and psychometer micro-skills

He uses thinking skills in his expression.

Always

His language management always projects him as an intelligent person since he performs intellectual operations that allow him to develop throughout the conversation with mental strategies capable of convincing, attracting, and persuading the interlocutor of his postulates. Among these can be definition, generalization, analysis, synthesis, summary, exemplification, paraphrasing, transition (change of topic), excerpt, reference, reflection, opinion, comment, clause, enumeration, comparison, contrast, contrast of ideas, criticism and argument.    

Almost always

His use of language projects him most of the time as an intelligent person, since he performs intellectual operations that allow him to develop part of the conversation with mental strategies capable of convincing, attracting and persuading almost always his interlocutor of his postulates.

Occasionally

His use of language projects him as an unintelligent person, since he performs intellectual operations with low processing, which does not allow him to go through the conversation with mental strategies. He is hardly able to convince, attract and persuade the interlocutor of his postulates.

Never

His handling of language does not project him as an intelligent person since he does not perform intellectual operations that allow him to develop throughout the conversation. The mishandling of mental abilities does not facilitate convincing, attracting and persuading the interlocutor of his postulates.

Indicator 14. Subscale: Attitudinal micro-skills

Oral communication reaches to express socio-affective experiences..

Always

He is emotional when he expresses ideas and shows that he can handle his emotions despite the circumstances. The examples expressed in the communication reveal their social experience, this makes others share the experience.

Almost always

His oral communication shows mostly that he is a sensitive person and avoids getting carried away by emotions most of the time. When he shares his experiences, he almost always makes others feel the experience, share it and feel part of it.

Occasionally

He barely share feelings in his oral communication whatever the circumstance. He is not very sensitive and affective with others. His experiences are almost always unknown and others do not get involved with him.       

Never

He does not show that you are a sensitive person or most of the time you let yourself be carried away by emotions and do not reflect on your words, gestures and expressions. When you share your experiences you do not get others to feel the experience, share it and feel part of it. He usually invents socio-affective circumstances.

Indicator 15. Subscale: Attitudinal micro-skills

The forms of oral communication express values and forms of behavior.

Always

The forms of his oral communication express values and forms of behavior, sincerity, loyalty, honesty, commitment, justice, equity, solidarity, self-esteem, discipline, rigor, courage, simplicity or humbleness.

Almost Always

Most of his oral communication expresses, in some way, human values, although from time to time he incurs some contrary attitude.         

Occasionally

Sometimes his oral communication expresses, in some way, human values although he repeatedly incurs in some contrary attitude.    

Never

His forms of oral communication express, in some way, anti-values and contrary behaviors such as hypocrisy, disloyalty, dishonesty, indifference, injustice, inequity, lack of solidarity, low self-esteem, indiscipline, laxity, cowardice, ostentation or haughtiness.

Indicator 16. Subscale: Attitudinal micro-skills

In oral communication, he is aware of the affective-emotional structures of his interlocutor in order to improve his interactive processes.

Always

Communication expresses respect, appreciation to the interlocutor and never discriminates against it for any social, ethnic or cultural reason. He never tries to hurt another person with the language and he knows how to empathize with it to create a pleasant climate in the conversation.

Almost always

The communication manifests almost always respect, valuation to the interlocutor and almost never discriminates for any social, ethnic or cultural reason. Do not always try to hurt another person with language and constantly empathize to create a pleasant climate in the conversation.

Occasionally

The communication sometimes shows respect, appreciation to the interlocutor and sometimes discriminates against him for some social, ethnic or cultural reason. Sometimes it hurts another person with language and almost does not empathize to create a pleasant climate in the conversation.

Never

The communication manifests permanently disrespect. It discriminates the interlocutor for some social, ethnic or cultural reason. It usually hurts another person with language and does not empathize which creates an unpleasant climate in the conversation.

Indicator 17. Subscale: Attitudinal micro-skills

The forms of oral communication express creative capacity. Construction of new images, essays of pleasant and aesthetic texts.

Always

He appreciates the creative capacity in oral communication, creates and recreates striking, original, novel phrases and even with aesthetic or poetic appreciation of language.       

Almost always

Almost always demonstrates creative ability in oral communication, often creates and recreates striking, original, novel phrases and even sometimes speaks with aesthetic or poetic appreciation of language.

Occasionally

His sentences do not always demonstrate a creative capacity in oral communication, almost does not create or recreate striking, original, novel phrases, sometimes employs "cliché" phrases and his aesthetic or poetic appreciation of language is rare.

Never

He does not demonstrate a creative capacity in oral communication or creates or recreates striking phrases. Many of his phrases are "clichés" and nothing original, novel. In his communication, an aesthetic or poetic appreciation of language is not appreciated

 

Conclusion

 

    In this way, and in accordance with the objectives set out in the research, it has been demonstrated in relation to the results obtained by the students of the tenth year of basic education of three types of educational institutions in the city of Quito that the instrument developed for the Evaluation of the oral competence of the students is a useful and manageable tool for the evaluation of oral communication in the dimensions of quality standards, skills and attitudes.

 

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Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, Vol. 22, Núm. 235, Dic. (2017)
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