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 Project-based learning, from an interdisciplinary perspective


Project-based learning, from an interdisciplinary perspective

El aprendizaje basado en proyectos desde una perspectiva interdisciplinar

Aprendizagem baseada em projetos a partir de uma perspectiva interdisciplinar

 

Dr. Milton Patricio Tapia Calvopiña

mptapia@uce.edu.ec

Dra. Margarita Angélica Medina Nicolalde

mamedina@uce.edu.ec

Dr. Milton David Tapia Medina

miltondavidtm1989@yahoo.com

 

Universidad Central del Ecuador

(Ecuador)

 

Reception: 11/24/2017 - Acceptance: 12/01/2017

1st Review: 11/30/2017 - 2nd Review: 11/30/2017

Abstract

    Project Based Learning (PBL), involves the incorporation within the teaching-learning process of a different role of both the student and the teacher. Of particular interest is the need for reprogramming from an interdisciplinary perspective the functions of the student as a builder of their learning. Therefore it is that the student in addition to train in situations similar to the reality, incorporate study and learning methods that allow you to develop your ability to work autonomously and your own core competencies; to the same extent that develops skills to apply theoretical knowledge in practice. This new vision broadens the horizon and the scope of each student, stimulates their performance, consolidates its level of competence through the responsibility that introduces given to make decisions in a variety of situations within the project; it is, however, not always understand the importance of the ABP and even less to consider its essence from interdisciplinary as a way to get the optimization of competencies and skills; Understood as a higher stage of autonomy in the construction of significant learning. In correspondence with the above, the aim of this article is to provide a reflective analysis on the value of developing project-based learning, from an interdisciplinary perspective, with emphasis on the integration of knowledge, recognizing the role of the student as the architect of their learning. Based on a methodology of scientific research, stands out as a result: Current educational scenarios that require a new look that allows the introduction of the ABP in an interdisciplinary manner, in such a way as to encourage the student to become protagonist of their learning, as a basis for the development of competencies and the improvement of the quality of the teaching-learning process.

    Keywords: Project-based learning. Interdisciplinary. Students. Skills. Integration of knowledge.

 

Resumen

    El Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABP), implica la incorporación dentro del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de un rol diferente tanto del estudiante como del docente. Particular interés adquiere la necesidad de reprogramar desde una perspectiva interdisciplinar las funciones del estudiante como constructor de su aprendizaje. Por consiguiente se trata que el estudiante además de entrenarse en situaciones similares a la realidad, incorpore métodos de estudio y aprendizaje que le permitan desarrollar su capacidad de trabajo autónomo y sus propias competencias; en la misma medida que desarrolla habilidades para aplicar los conocimientos teóricos a la práctica. Esta nueva visión amplia el horizonte y los alcance de cada estudiante, estimula su desempeño, consolida su nivel de competencias a través de la responsabilidad que introduce dada la toma de decisiones ante diversas situaciones dentro del proyecto; sin embargo no siempre se logra comprender la importancia del ABP y menos aún considerar su esencia desde la interdisciplinaridad, como vía para obtener la optimización de competencias y habilidades; entendida esta como una fase superior de autonomía en la construcción de aprendizajes significativos. En correspondencia con lo anterior el objetivo del artículo es proporcionar un análisis reflexivo sobre la valía de desarrollar el Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos desde una perspectiva interdisciplinar, con énfasis en la integración de saberes, reconociendo el papel del estudiante como artífice de su aprendizaje. Basado en una metodología de búsqueda científica, se destaca como resultado: que los escenarios educativos actuales requieren de una nueva mirada que permita la introducción del ABP de manera interdisciplinar, de modo tal que estimule al estudiante a convertirse en protagonista de su aprendizaje, como fundamento para el desarrollo de competencias y la mejora de la calidad del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje.

    Palabras claves: Aprendizaje basado en proyectos. Interdisciplinaridad. Estudiantes. Competencias. Integración de saberes.

 

Resumo

    A Aprendizagem Baseada em Projetos (ABP) implica a incorporação no processo ensino-aprendizagem de um papel diferente do aluno e do professor. O interesse particular adquire a necessidade de reprogramar de uma perspectiva interdisciplinar as funções do aluno como construtor de sua aprendizagem. Portanto, é uma questão de o aluno não apenas treinar em situações semelhantes à realidade, mas também incorporar métodos de estudo e aprendizagem que lhe permitam desenvolver sua capacidade de trabalho autônomo e suas próprias competências; na mesma medida que desenvolve habilidades para aplicar conhecimento teórico à prática. Esta nova visão amplia o horizonte e o alcance de cada aluno, estimula seu desempenho, consolida seu nível de competências através da responsabilidade que ele apresenta desde a tomada de decisões diante de diversas situações dentro do projeto; No entanto, nem sempre é possível compreender a importância do PBL e ainda menos considerar sua essência a partir da interdisciplinaridade, como forma de obter a otimização de habilidades e habilidades; entendido como uma fase superior de autonomia na construção de aprendizagem significativa. Em correspondência com o acima exposto, o objetivo do artigo é fornecer uma análise reflexiva sobre o valor do desenvolvimento da Aprendizagem Baseada em Projetos a partir de uma perspectiva interdisciplinar, com ênfase na integração do conhecimento, reconhecendo o papel do aluno como arquiteto de sua aprendizagem. Com base em uma metodologia de pesquisa científica, destaca-se como resultado: que os cenários educacionais atuais exigem um novo visual que permita a introdução do ABP de forma interdisciplinar, de forma a estimular o aluno a se tornar o protagonista de sua aprendizagem, como base para o desenvolvimento de competências e a melhoria da qualidade do processo ensino-aprendizagem.

    Unitermos: Aprendizagem baseada em projetos. Interdisciplinaridade. Ensino-aprendizagem.

Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, Vol. 22, Núm. 235, Dic. (2017)


 

Introduction

 

    Nowadays, students are involved in problems that are increasingly complex and require approaches that transcend the disciplines, since they cannot be addressed from individual disciplines or in a fragmented or decontextualized way (Mitchell, 2009, Rodríguez, et al.,2016). This is necessary since learning should be encouraged towards the understanding of the strategic use of the knowledge acquired in a way that solves real problems or tasks (Pozo & Pérez, 2009, Rodríguez & Naranjo, 2016).

 

    Project-Based Learning (PBL) is considered a methodology or a teaching-learning strategy, in which students carry out their own learning (Brundiers, & Wiek, 2013; Boss, S., & Krauss, 2014; Lee, Blackwell, Drake, & Moran, 2014), developing a classroom project, which according to Rodríguez-Sandoval, Vargas-Solano & Luna-Cortés (2010), seeks to apply the knowledge acquired about a specific product or process, where the student will have to put into practice theoretical concepts to solve real problems.

 

    This constitutes a new paradigm in which the student is given prominence by removing the passive role of receptionist of the various contents within the teaching-learning process, and working from their active and critical participation that allows them to reach the defined determinant aspects in the project. This implies that the teacher's task should be aimed at enabling each student to reach their cognitive development by taking control of their own learning, and in this way they allow everyone to learn to socially build knowledge.

    When addressing the teaching-learning process from an interdisciplinary perspective, it entails modifications in the actions of this process. The aim is to incorporate an innovative methodology that makes teaching a transformative dimension, with the capacity to respond to the different demands that are currently being proposed from the different professional, social and scientific fields.

 

        However, this new way of materializing the teaching-learning process, is a challenge itself and therefore a change both, in the roles of the different actors involved, and in those aspects that interrelate, such as the teaching programs (Buabeng-Andoh, 2012), the organizational variables of the educational process (Miner, 2015), the dynamics of the classes (Wilkins, Shams, & Huisman, 2013), the evaluation (Barroso, Calero, & Sánchez, 2015) among others, all those aspects that need to be rescheduled if we want to achieve a higher quality of the teaching-learning process.

 

    As is logical, this does not properly mean getting rid of the disciplinary approach, but both approaches must be combined so that the knowledge of teaching is focused from different and complementary positions at the same time, for this integration gain the relevance and significance needed within the educational process. In this way, the treatment of the programs from an interdisciplinary perspective justifies the reason of the cooperative spirit of the teacher as a team, encouraging the research work of the group of students, and improving the quality of the teaching-learning process.

 

    The interdisciplinary projects are based on the coordination of the teaching staff of the different disciplines and fulfill the function of promoting the learning process through the student’s competences and achieve a quality teaching in it. The benefits of this new methodology will be nuanced in the results obtained when a work team, which is said - student-teacher-, considers a given project related to an experience and a specific topic, which requires, as an essential and necessary measure, the collaboration of all for the achievement of the planned objectives, achieving the progress of all those involved and the progress of the rest of the collectives of the educational area.

 

    However, reality shows that it is not always possible to understand the importance of PBL and even less to consider its essence from interdisciplinarity, as a way to obtain the optimization of skills and abilities; understood as a higher phase of autonomy in the construction of significant learning in students (Aberšek, 2014, Frodeman, Klein, & Pacheco, 2017). In correspondence with the above mentioned, the objective of the article is to provide a reflective analysis on the value of developing Project-Based Learning from an interdisciplinary perspective, with emphasis on the integration of knowledge, recognizing the role of the students as the architect of their learning (Mulder, 2012; Derry, Schunn, & Gernsbacher, 2014), in such a way that it extends its competences and at the same time contributes to raise the quality of the teaching-learning process.

 

About Project Based Learning

 

    First of all it is necessary to know that there are still ambiguities about what this type of learning is about and how it differs from other methodologies or concepts used, such as "problem-based learning", "learning by doing", "learning based on challenges”, and others, so that this confusion generates dilution in the application process to obtain the expected results and obtain a benefit that is not in accordance with the real possibilities offered by its application.

 

    One of the definitions that contains the most the essence of this type of learning and with which we fully agree is the one expressed by (Jones, Rasmussen, & Moffitt, 1997) when they point out that "project-based learning is a set of tasks of learning based on solving questions and / or problems, which involves the student in the design and planning of learning, in decision-making and in research processes, giving them the opportunity to work in a relatively autonomous way during most of the time, which culminates in the realization of a final product presented before the others.

 

    This implies the incorporation of a different role of the student within the teaching-learning process, which in addition to the training in similar situations to reality, incorporates methods of study and learning that makes them develop their ability to work autonomously and their own skills requiring them to apply the knowledge acquired to problematic situations that are presented for their investigation; at the same time it makes them broaden the scope of interpretation of this theoretical knowledge.

 

    In this context we share the validity of the quoted by Blumenfeld, Soloway, Marx, Krajcik, Guzdial, & Palincsar (1991), who state that in the PBL the students pursue solutions to problems, generate questions, debate ideas, design plans, investigate for collect data, draw conclusions, expose their results to others, redefine their questions and create or improve a final product.

 

    It is precisely in this scenario, that the teacher's work should be directed in the first place to the proposed project which is the object of study, to its complexity and relevance. In this order of ideas, it is fundamental that the teacher encourages the interest of the students in a permanent way, provoking a proactive performance, or what is the same significant, builders of their learning. This will guarantee not only the quality in the learning and knowledge, but also that they correctly apply the necessary procedures so that they obtain a final product according to the planned expectations.

 

    Related to this, we agree with Johari & Bradshaw (2008) where the student takes charge of their learning and the teacher ensures that the projects find the balance between skill and challenge, triggering a pleasant experience in learning. It is therefore up to the teacher to apply strategies and actions aimed at stimulating the correct actions of the students throughout the PBL process so that the expected results are collected.

 

    According to Rodríguez-Sandoval, Vargas-Solano & Luna-Cortés (2010), among the actions the teachers must perform are: to encourage the use of metacognitive processes, strengthen group and individual efforts, diagnose problems, offer solutions, give feedback and evaluate the results, we have the criterion that it must be also added the previous planning of each process to be carried out, with emphasis on the projection of actions leading to the integration of knowledge and to the compartment of responsibilities within the own process of development of the projects.

 

    Precisely in Project-Based Learning, the student ventures into another facet no less important, which will consolidate their level of competence and is related to the responsibility that introduces the decision making that must be exercised in various situations the project will present during its development, which makes us agree with Thomas (2000) since in the PBL the students must be involved in a systematic process of research, which involves making decisions regarding the learning goals, inquiry on the subject and construction of knowledge.
As the author indicates, we share that this type of autonomous work fosters more responsibility in students, than the rest of the traditional methods of instruction; hence, it means one of the fundamental spaces for the teacher to evaluate the capacity and the degree of response of the students, along with their level of responsibility to the rest of their classmates and the project they carry out.

 

    At the same time, when we refer to Project-Based Learning, we must not leave the preparation of students, both theoretical (imparting knowledge) and practice, out of hand. In this sense we start from considering that learning itself requires, methods for the development of didactic practices with a comprehensive vision, that allow to put into action the different knowledge acquired in the process.

 

    In this line of thought it is fundamental to understand the relationship that exists between theory and practice, establishing its link with the PBL. We must start from understanding that to achieve the optimization of this pedagogical and didactic action it is necessary to recognize that each practical activity to be carried out must be preceded by a high theoretical load that is directly related to the dynamics of the teaching-learning process to be developed.

 

    This implies that imparting theoretical topics without subsequently applying them in practice is to eliminate the possibility of students of receiving the experience of pouring the learned contents into concrete works. That is why, in order to positively influence the development of students during the development of the project and contribute to expand their potential and scope, each theoretical theme developed must necessarily be linked to a specific practical activity.

 

Interdisciplinarity: A need for PBL optimization

 

    Throughout this article we have been reinforcing a first idea in our transcendental way if we want to achieve success in the construction of meaningful learning in students (Karpicke, 2012; Huang, & Chiu, 2015). It is essentially a question to offer a new look regarding the role of the student and the teacher, since the latter has the responsibility of guaranteeing that the project proposal is viable and is tempered to the real and objective needs in the students (Jones, & Sallis, 2013). We also have noted that the PBL only takes significance for students when they have the opportunity to transfer and apply the knowledge learned to a specific situation, which also allows them to have the possibility of making a new, innovative proposal in the realization of the project and in one's daily life.

 

    However, despite being a transcendental step in the teaching-learning process of students, we must bear in mind that the skills and competencies introduced by the PBL, can increase the benefits of its application, by incorporating an interdisciplinary perspective, that extends the areas of realization of the projects, in relation to it we share with (UNESCO, 1998, Briscall, 2000, Pérez, 2005, Lin, 2008, Wall and Shankar, 2008, Cuadrado, Ruiz Molina and Coca, 2009, Gómez, 2009), stating that "as a result, the potential of developing experiences in which the contents are connected and presented in a way that makes reference to real situations full of meaning is avoided; this way it would gain in understanding and functionality ".

 

    This implies opening the research spectrum, taking into account many other aspects and knowledge that affect the problem of the project to be carried out in a way that is framed in an interdisciplinary perspective so as to originate a final product with an integrally comprehensive quality, coinciding with Pozuelos, Rodríguez & Travé (2012) in which to achieve this, "the interdisciplinary approach cannot refer only to the data contributions" of the different disciplines, it must first of all become a feedback of different knowledge, or coinciding with Gibbons et. al (1997), it consists in working on different topics, but within a common structure that is shared by all the disciplines involved.

 

    Interdisciplinary projects must be based on the coordination of the teaching staff and they must fulfill a function aimed at promoting the learning of competencies of the students, representing a step forward in obtaining a higher quality education.

 

    It coincides with García & Roblin (2008) followed by Pozuelos, Rodríguez & Travé (2012) when they state that "teacher training takes a practical meaning with these experiences that affects both the teaching phase and the production of professional knowledge", as the previous authors point out, "in short, their development (of the teacher) is promoted from reflection and shared research".

 

    Several studies have verified the effectiveness of the application of PBL and the benefits it generates within the teaching-learning process, according to Aranda & Monleón (2016), when the student is an active element in the teaching-learning process, it increases their interest and motivation when carrying out programmed activities and when innovating methodologies are used which favor the acquisition and contextualization of learning, the acquisition of knowledge is more enriching.

 

    The truth is that the PBL methodology from an interdisciplinary perspective, properly favors the possibility of interrelating and incorporating different subjects or academic disciplines, in the elaboration of the specific project related to a given problematic situation; allowing students to resort the knowledge acquired in the various subjects, which leads to the much-needed integration of knowledge, causing the competence of know-how to be developed in a specific context.

 

    It also has among its advantages to stimulate students to learn the contents of information, similar to what they will use in future situations, which encourages that what is learned, understood and not just memorized. On the other hand, when it is applied in this interdisciplinary field, it integrates knowledge of several subjects within the project that is carried out, allowing the learning not to be divided and related to the research and scientific and investigative inquiry, which starts from a given problem situation in the different subjects, and that needs to be solved with a comprehensive and dynamic vision.

 

    We must ask ourselves then: How to optimize the process from an interdisciplinary perspective?.

 

    To answer the question posed, we consider it necessary to reflect on three essential aspects:

 

    The need for reprogramming in terms of its essence and functions, allowing a paradigm shift and the introduction of didactic alternatives tempered to new educational and social scenarios.

 

    The preparation and training of teaching staff to be able to count on the necessary tools that will facilitate the application of this methodology from an interdisciplinary perspective, understanding its value for the achievement of significant competences and learning in students.

 

    The designation of responsibilities to the participants of the project within the teaching-learning process with emphasis on the role of students as architects of their learning and competences.

 

    The authors have the criteria to achieve what was stated in a harmonious and organized way, it will be possible to contribute to the optimization of knowledge and to the reach of a higher phase within the development of competences of the students participating in the project.

 

    Observe the graphic expression of the PBL link from an interdisciplinary perspective.

 

Graph 1. Linking the PBL from an interdisciplinary perspective

 

    From the reflection and analysis carried out so far, the main result is that current educational scenarios require a new perspective that allows the introduction of PBL in an interdisciplinary way, in such a way that stimulate the student to become the protagonist of their learning, as a foundation for the development of competences and the improvement of the quality of the teaching-learning process.

 

Conclusions

 

    The application of Project-Based Learning, by its very essence and systematic guarantees for students the acquisition of learning and skills such as self-study, the search for information, the preparation of presentations, teamwork, planning the time of the phases of the project, the ability to exhibit adequately, the elevation of the level of responsibility and the ability to make decisions. To all this we add the advantages of linking the PBL in an interdisciplinary perspective for making interdisciplinary projects, through the integration of knowledge, which plays a role in promoting the learning of and by competencies of students.

 

    That is why the application of Project-Based Learning from an interdisciplinary perspective constitutes a superior phase within the teaching-learning process that not only expands the skills of students in their preparation for their professional future but also contributes to raise the quality of this process.

 

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Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, Vol. 22, Núm. 235, Dic. (2017)
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